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Redox models in chemistry:  A depiction of the conceptions held by secondary school students of redox reactions
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

According to previous research, students show difficulties in learning redox reactions. By the historical development different redox models exist to explain redox reactions, the oxygen model, the hydrogen model, the electron model and the oxidation number model. This thesis reports about three studies concerning conceptions held by secondary school students of redox reactions. A textbook analysis is also included in the thesis.

The first study was an investigation of the students’ use of redox models in inorganic contexts, their use of the activity series of metals, and the students’ ability to transfer redox knowledge. Then the students’ work with an open-ended biochemical task, where the students had access of the textbook was studied. The students talk about redox reactions, the questions raised by the students, what resources used to answer the questions and what kind of talk developed were investigated. A textbook analysis based on chemistry books from Sweden and one book from England was performed. The redox models used as well as the dealing with redox related learning difficulties was studied. Finally, the students’ conceptions about redox in inorganic, organic and biochemistry after completed chemistry courses were studied.

The results show that the students were able to use the electron model as a tool to explain inorganic redox reactions and the mutuality of oxidation and reduction was fundamental. The activity series of metals became a tool for the prediction of reducing agent in some reactions. Most of the students rejected that oxygen is a prerequisite for a redox reaction. In the biochemical task the resource most used to answer the raised questions were the students’ consultation of the textbook – together or individually. Most questions resulted in short answers and the majority of these questions were answered. Questions concerning redox were analysed by the students and integrated into a chemical context but they could neither identify the substances oxidised or reduced nor couple the concepts to transfer of hydrogen atoms. The majority of these redox questions became unanswered. The textbook helped the students to structure a poster as well as to answer basic chemistry questions. For questions about organic and biochemical redox, the book was of no help. The textbook analysis showed that all historical redox models are used. Different models are used in inorganic, organic and biochemistry. The mutuality of oxidation and reduction is treated differently in subject areas. The textbooks did not help the reader linking the different redox models that were used. Few redox-related learning difficulties are addressed in the books. After completed chemistry courses the students had major problems to justify a redox reaction explained by transfer of hydrogen atoms both in the organic and biochemistry examples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet , 2010. , 58 p.
Series
Studies in Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1652-5051
Keyword [en]
science education, redox reaction, model, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, students' conceptions, textbook
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
didactics of chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35770ISBN: 978-91-7459-053-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-35770DiVA: diva2:346994
Public defence
2010-09-24, KBC-huset, KB3A9, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-09-03 Created: 2010-09-02 Last updated: 2010-09-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Students’ understanding of redox reactions in three situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students’ understanding of redox reactions in three situations
2009 (English)In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 5, no 2, 115-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Redox models that explain electrochemical issues have been found to be difficult to teach and to learn. The aim of this study was to investigate students’ reasoning about redox reactions in three situations, how they used the activity series of metals and if they transferred knowledge between domains. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten students on two different occasions and dealt with three situations 1) a laboratory practical on corrosion; 2) a demonstration of zinc and copper sulphate solution; and 3) a corroded sculpture. The results indicated that the electron model was fundamental and reinforced. The identification of the reducing agent in the situations was unproblematic. The students’ conceptions regarding the oxidizing agent varied and diverged from the scientific model in some situations. Depending on the situation, the activity series of metal became a tool as well as an obstacle. Some transfer of knowledge between the classroom and the outdoor situation was indicated.

National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34452 (URN)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Questions, reasoning and redox reactions: the work of upper secondary school students on an open-ended biochemistry task
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questions, reasoning and redox reactions: the work of upper secondary school students on an open-ended biochemistry task
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 In vital processes, such as metabolic reactions, redox reactions are important. This study reports results from students’ work in small groups with an open-ended biochemistry task involving metabolic pathways. The aim was to investigate, with a special attention to redox, the questions raised, the talk developed and the resources the students used to answer their questions. Video-recorded observations of three groups were conducted. To structure data, categorisation was performed. The result shows that the main recourse used to solve the questions was the consulting of the textbook – together or individually. Most questions were answered by consulting the textbook together, or a group member answered from own knowledge. The talk developed from the questions was mostly talk concerning a limited chemistry area or short answers. Questions about redox generated talk where the students analysed and related information into a context. Few questions were answered and the textbook was of no help.

Keyword
biochemistry, redox, upper secondary school, questions, discussion, talk, reasoning
Research subject
didactics of chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35738 (URN)
Available from: 2010-09-02 Created: 2010-09-01 Last updated: 2010-09-03Bibliographically approved
3. Redox models in chemistry textbooks for the upper secondary school: friend or foe?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redox models in chemistry textbooks for the upper secondary school: friend or foe?
2010 (English)In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1109-4028, Vol. 11, 182-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 We have investigated how chemistry textbooks use models of redox reactions in different subject areas, how they change models between and within the topics, and how they deal with specific learning difficulties identified in the literature. The textbooks examined were published for use in the natural science programme in Swedish upper secondary schools and in the UK A-level course. As a starting point, the defined redox models found in the literature were used to investigate the textbooks. The results show that all redox models are used with the addition of alternative representations. Authors exclusively use the electron and the oxidation number models in inorganic chemistry. In organic chemistry, the oxygen and hydrogen model are used, and in biochemistry mainly hydrogen and alternative representations. There is no guide to changes of models between the subject areas. However, within the inorganic chemistry, authors guide model change which was not identified in either organic or biochemistry. Regarding the learning difficulties, the authors dealt with just a few of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010
Keyword
textbook analysis, chemistry, oxidation, reduction, redox, model, learning difficulties
Research subject
didactics of chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35737 (URN)10.1039/C005467B (DOI)000279720200005 ()
Available from: 2010-09-02 Created: 2010-09-01 Last updated: 2010-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. The conceptions held by upper secondary school students of redox reactions in inorganic, organic and biochemistry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The conceptions held by upper secondary school students of redox reactions in inorganic, organic and biochemistry
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 The aim of this study was to investigate the conceptions held by upper secondary school students’ of redox reactions after their completed chemistry course. Semi-structured group interviews were carried out around examples of redox phenomena in inorganic, organic and biochemistry. Additional stimuli such as pictures and passages from the textbook were used to encourage the students to reveal their redox knowledge. In total, 17 students participated. The results indicate that the electron model seems to be reinforced in the inorganic example and becomes a tool in the students’ explanations. The students had difficulties in using the hydrogen model in organic and biochemistry. In organic chemistry, some students questioned how hydrogen loss can be considered to be an oxidation. In biochemistry, many students mixed redox models to explain the reaction.

Keyword
science education, oxidation, reduction, redox, model, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry
Research subject
didactics of chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35739 (URN)
Available from: 2010-09-02 Created: 2010-09-01 Last updated: 2010-09-03Bibliographically approved

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Österlund, Lise-Lotte

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