umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Little evidence for Cope’s rule from Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of extant mammals
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
2010 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 9, 2017-2021 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to Cope’s rule, lineages tend to evolve towards larger body size, possibly because of selective advantages of being large. The status of Cope’s ‘rule’ remains controversial as it is supported in some but not all large-scale fossil studies. Here, we test for Cope’s rule by Bayesian analyses of average body masses of 3253 extant mammal species on a dated phylogenetic tree. The data favour a model that does not assume Cope’s rule. When Cope’s rule is assumed, the best estimate of its strength is an average ancestor-descendant increase in body size of only 0.4%, which sharply contrasts with the 9% bias estimated from fossil mammals. Thus, we find no evidence for Cope’s rule from extant mammals, in agreement with earlier analyses of existing species, which also did not find support for Cope’s rule.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 23, no 9, 2017-2021 p.
Keyword [en]
bayesian models, body size, macroevolution, phylogenetics, present-day species
National Category
Ecology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35850DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02051.xISI: 000281141800020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-35850DiVA: diva2:349740
Note
Short Communication:Available from: 2010-09-08 Created: 2010-09-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The tempo and mode of evolution: a neontological reappraisal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The tempo and mode of evolution: a neontological reappraisal
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The theory of “punctuated equilibrium” suggests that species evolve rapidly during or immediately upon speciation, “punctuating” long periods of little or no morphological evolution. Here I confirm that body size differences within clades of birds and mammals are best explained using a model of punctuated evolution. This allows me to suggest that rates of speciation and extinction are responsible for why there are more small mammals than large, as large mammals likely speciate and go extinct at a higher rate than small mammals, and hence undergo cladogenetic change more often. Likewise, mammals appear to evolve at a higher rate than birds, because mammals, as a whole, speciate and go extinct at a higher rate than birds. Furthermore I show that mass extinctions and competition, i.e. forms of natural selection, do not seem to explain differences in body size between species on a macroevolutionary scale. Taken together, these findings not only contradict the idea that apparently different rates of evolution are due to differential selection intensities, and emphasize the importance of the speciation process in evolution, but raise the intriguing question as to what limits evolution in established species. Here I suggest that phenotypic traits, dependent on one another for development and/or function may constrain evolution by exerting stabilizing selection from within the organism, as opposed to external environmental selection, which has been the main focus of evolutionary studies thus far.

Abstract [sv]

Teorin om "punkterad jämvikt" säger att arter utvecklas snabbt under och omedelbart efter artbildning, vilket "punkterar" långa perioder med lite eller ingen morfologisk föränding. I den här avhandlingen visar jag att skillnader i kroppsstorlek inom klader (grupp med gemensam förfader) hos fåglar och däggdjur förklaras bäst när man använder en modell med punkterad evolution. Detta gör i sin tur att jag kan föreslå att hastigheten var med artbildning och utdöende sker, förklarar varför det finns fler små däggdjur än stora, eftersom stora däggdjur sannolikt bildar nya arter och dör ut med en högre hastighet än små däggdjur. Likaså förefaller däggdjur i sin helhet att evolvera med en högre hastighet än fåglar, detta eftersom däggdjur bildar nya arter och dör ut med en högre hastighet än fåglar. Dessutom visar jag att massutdöenden och konkurrens (naturlig selektion) inte verkar förklara skillnader mellan arter över makroevolutionära skalor (över geologisk tid). Sammantaget motsäger dessa resultat inte bara idén om att skenbart olika hastighet på evolution främst beror på skillnader i selektionstryck utan understryker också vikten av artbildningsprocessen som en viktig faktor som styr evolutionens hastighet. Dessutom leder dessa resultat till frågan om vad som begränsar evolutionen hos redan etablerade arter. Här föreslår jag att fenotypiska karaktärsdrag som är beroende av varandra för sin funktion och utveckling kan begränsa evolutionen genom att utöva stabiliserande selektion inifrån organismen, i motsats till selektion från den omgivande miljön vilket har varit fokus för de flesta evolutionära studier hittills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå Universitet, 2011. 38 p.
Keyword
birds, extinction, macroevolution, mammals, microevolution, punctuated equilibrium, speciation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-49761 (URN)978-91-7459-306-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-09, KBC-huset, KB3A9, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2011-11-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Monroe, Melanie J.Bokma, Folmer
By organisation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
In the same journal
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
EcologyEarth and Related Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 254 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf