umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Physiological responses to touch massage in healthy volunteers
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical, ISSN 1566-0702, E-ISSN 1872-7484, Vol. 158, no 1-2, 105-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of touch massage (TM) on stress responses in healthy volunteers.

METHODS: A crossover design including twenty-two (mean age=28.2) healthy volunteers (11 male and 11 female) cardiac autonomic tone was measured by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Stress hormone levels (cortisol) were followed in saliva. We also measured blood glucose and serum insulin. Extracellular (ECV) levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were followed using the microdialysis technique (MD). TM was performed on hands and feet for 80min, during control, participants rested in the same setting. Data were collected before, during, and after TM and at rest. Saliva cortisol, serum glucose, and serum insulin were collected before, immediately following, and 1h after intervention or control, respectively.

RESULTS: After 5min TM, HR decreased significantly, indicating a reduced stress response. Total HRV and all HRV components decreased during intervention. Saliva cortisol and insulin levels decreased significantly after intervention, while serum glucose levels remained stable. A similar, though less prominent, pattern was seen during the control situation. Only minor changes were observed in ECV levels of glucose (a decrease) and lactate (an increase). No significant alterations were observed in glycerol or pyruvate levels throughout the study. There were no significant differences between groups in ECV concentrations of analyzed substances.

CONCLUSIONS: In healthy volunteers, TM decreased sympathetic nervous activity, leading to decreased overall autonomic activity where parasympathetic nervous activity also decreased, thereby maintaining the autonomic balance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 158, no 1-2, 105-110 p.
Keyword [en]
Touch, Massage, Autonomic nervous system, Heart rate variability, Saliva cortisol, Glucose, Insulin, Microdialysis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-37167DOI: 10.1016/j.autneu.2010.06.011ISI: 000284926900017PubMedID: 20638912ISBN: 1872-7484 (Electronic) 1566-0702 (Linking) (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-37167DiVA: diva2:358341
Note
Journal article Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical Auton Neurosci. 2010 Jul 16.Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Emotional and physiological responses to touch massage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional and physiological responses to touch massage
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Clinical findings indicate that touch massage has the ability to induce positive emotions and influence stress responses. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain observed responses.

Aim: To understand mechanisms behind observed emotional and physiological responses during and after touch massage.

Methods: This thesis is based upon healthy volunteers in Studies I, II, IV and patients undergone aortic surgery in Study III. Study I had a crossover design, participants served as their own controls. After randomization they received TM on one occasion and the other occasion served as control. Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) saliva cortisol concentration, glucose, insulin in serum and extracellular (ECV) levels of glucose, lactate, glycerol and pyruvat were measured before, during and after TM/control. In study II, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in order to measure brain activity during TM movement. The study design included four different touch stimulations, human touch with movement (TM movement) human stationary touch and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale). Study III had a randomized controlled design. The intervention group received TM and the control group rested. HRV, cortisol, glucose, insulin in serum, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory frequency and anxiety levels were measured before, during and after TM/control. In study IV participants were interviewed about experiences after TM and the text was analyzed in by qualitative content analyze.

Results:

Study I. TM reduced the stress response as indicated by decreased heart rate and decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, followed by a compensatory decrease in parasympathetic nervous activity in order to maintain balance. Cortisol and insulin levels decreased significantly after intervention, while serum glucose levels remained stable. A similar, though less prominent, pattern was seen during the control session. There were no significant differences in ECV concentrations of analyzed substances.

Study II. Human moving touch (TM movement) was significantly rated as the most pleasant touch stimulation. The fMRI results revealed that human moving touch (TM movement) most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC).

Study III. Selfrated anxiety levels significantly decreased in the patient group that received TM compared with control group. There were no significant differences in physiological stress-related outcome parameters between patients who received touch massage and controls.

Study IV. In this study participants talked about the experience of TM in terms of rewards. Expressions like need, desire, pleasure and conditioning could be linked with a theoretical model of reward. Four different categories were identified as wanting, liking, learning and responding.

In conclusion: Results from these studies indicate that receiving TM is experienced as rewarding. Touch massage movement activates a brain area involved in coding of rewarding pleasant stimulations. TM decreases anxiety and dampens the stress response by a decreased activation of the sympathetic nervous activity. Our results indicate that TM is a caring intervention that can be used to induce pleasure, decrease anxiety and stress in the receiver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2012. 60 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1531
Keyword
Touch, touch massage, emotion, anxiety, autonomic nervous sytem, brain, stress
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61492 (URN)978-91-7459-524-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-07, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-15 Last updated: 2012-11-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20638912

Authority records BETA

Lindgren, LenitaWinsö, OlaLehtipalo, StefanWiklund, UrbanStenlund, HansJacobsson, CatrineBrulin, Christine

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lindgren, LenitaRundgren, SWinsö, OlaLehtipalo, StefanWiklund, UrbanKarlsson, MarkusStenlund, HansJacobsson, CatrineBrulin, Christine
By organisation
Department of NursingAnaesthesiologyRadiation PhysicsEpidemiology and Global Health
In the same journal
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 738 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf