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Adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes and their determinants in rural Vietnam 1999-2005
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
School of health and social sciences, Dalarna University, Sweden.
Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Human Development Sector, World Bank, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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2010 (English)In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 24, no 6, 535-545 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Population-based estimations of perinatal and neonatal outcomes are sparse in Vietnam. There are no previously published data on small for gestational age (SGA) infants. A rural population in northern Vietnam was investigated from 1999 to 2005 (n = 5521). Based on the birthweight distributions within the population under study, reference curves for intrauterine growth for Vietnamese infants were constructed and the prevalence and distribution of SGA was calculated for each sex. Neonatal mortality was estimated as 11.6 per 1000 live births and the perinatal mortality as 25.0 per 1000 births during the study period. The mean birthweight was 3112 g and the prevalence of low birthweight was 5.0%. The overall prevalence of SGA was 6.4%. SGA increased with gestational age and was 2.2%, 4.5% and 27.1% for preterm, term and post-term infants, respectively. Risk factors for SGA were post-term birth: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.75 [95% CI 6.02, 9.98], mothers in farming occupations AOR 1.72 [95% CI 1.21, 2.45] and female infant AOR 1.61 [95% CI 1.27, 2.03]. There was a pronounced decrease in neonatal mortality after 33 weeks of gestation. Suggested interventions are improved prenatal identification of SGA infants by ultrasound investigation for fetal growth among infants who do not follow their expected clinical growth curve at the antenatal clinic. Other suggestions include allocating a higher proportion of preterm deliveries to health facilities with surgical capacity and neonatal care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 24, no 6, 535-545 p.
Keyword [en]
perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality, gestation, birthweight, SGA, maternal occupation
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-37264DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2010.01135.xISI: 000283167100003PubMedID: 20955231OAI: diva2:358709
Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-10-24 Last updated: 2011-03-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Reproductive outcomes in rural Vietnam. Perspectives and experiences by pregnant women and health care professionals on pregnancy promotion and maternal health care.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reproductive outcomes in rural Vietnam. Perspectives and experiences by pregnant women and health care professionals on pregnancy promotion and maternal health care.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background Reproductive health and health events associated with pregnancy including induced abortions are among the most important factors for the health of fertile women. Adverse outcomes have an impact on women’s reproductive health and their overall health as well as the health of their offspring. Pregnancy and child bearing take place within a cultural context. Risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes depend on factors both associated with the individual woman as well as contextual factors.

Aims This thesis investigates reproductive health indicators and their determinants for women in a rural district in Vietnam with special focus on adverse pregnancy outcomes and their determinants. In addition, this thesis explores the perspectives and experiences among pregnant women and health care professionals on maternal health care in Vietnam and risks during pregnancy and delivery.

Methods The studies used quantitative and qualitative methods.  In the quantitative studies a total of 4,396 women reporting 5,838 pregnancies, and 5,521 infants were included. Parametric and non parametric tests and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.   For the estimation of small for gestational age a population-specific reference curve was constructed based on the mean birth weight at term in the study population. In the qualitative studies data were collected from eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women and four with health care professionals. Manifest and latent content analysis was applied. 

Main findings Women belonging to an ethnic minority or women giving birth at home were at increased risk of stillbirth.  The risk of induced abortion increased with maternal age. Neonatal mortality was estimated to 11.6 per 1000 live births and perinatal mortality to 25.0 per 1000 births. The prevalence of small for gestational age was estimated to 6.4%. Risk factors for small for gestational age included women in farming occupations and post-term birth. There was a marked decrease in perinatal mortality after 33 weeks of gestation.

Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women’s use of maternal health care and the performance of the health care professionals. The use of maternal health care was influenced by economical conditions as well as cultural norms that impeded women’s autonomy. Structural constraints included inadequate financing of the health system, including lack of staff, insufficient professional re-training, and inadequate equipment. Pregnant women in rural Vietnam created a strategy to promote a healthy pregnancy through lifestyle adjustments, gathering of information, and seeking timely medical care. Insights in pregnancy-related conditions were sought from various sources and were influenced both by Vietnamese traditions and modern medical knowledge.

Conclusions Knowledge about pregnancy complications and their related signs and symptoms, and a high confidence in the maternal health care probably contribute to the relatively good maternal health status and pregnancy outcomes in Vietnam. To improve perinatal and neonatal outcomes there is a need to ensure access for all pregnant women to delivery units with surgical capacity in case of an obstetrical emergency. Also, a higher proportion of premature infants need to be born at units with access to neonatal care. This may be achieved by an improved system for referral including capacity of medical care during transportation. Other desirable improvements include antenatal identification of small for gestational age foetuses. In our study the induced abortion rate increased with maternal age and was highest among married women, indicating that induced abortions may be used as a method for family planning.

The cultural norms in Vietnam limit women’s autonomy and reduce their possibility to make independent decisions about their reproductive health. Our studies emphasize the importance of adequate access for all women to maternal health care adjusted for their individual needs. A better understanding is needed of context-specific factors that influence couples’ choice of family planning methods, place of birth, and maternal health care. The communication between pregnant women and health care professionals needs further investigation. This knowledge is essential in order to develop reproductive health services that are accessible, acceptable and affordable to all.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2010. 101 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1373
Maternal health services, Maternal health care, Antenatal care, Reproductive health, Pregnancy outcome, Pregnancy complications, Perinatal mortality, Neonatal mortality, Birth weight, Small for gestational age, Epidemiology, Cohort study, Qualitative research, Content analysis, Vietnam
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-37266 (URN)978-91-7459-082-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-17, Bergasalen, Byggnad 27, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2010-10-28 Created: 2010-10-24 Last updated: 2010-10-28Bibliographically approved

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