Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cigar and pipe smoking and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 127, no 10, 2402-2411 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The carcinogenicity of cigar and pipe smoking is established but the effect of detailed smoking characteristics is less well defined. We examined the effects on cancer incidence of exclusive cigar and pipe smoking, and in combination with cigarettes, among 102,395 men from Denmark, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom in the EPIC cohort. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer during a median 9-year follow-up from ages 35 to 70 years were estimated using proportional hazards models. Compared to never smokers, HR of cancers of lung, upper aerodigestive tract and bladder combined was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.8) for exclusive cigar smokers (16 cases), 3.0 (2.1, 4.5) for exclusive pipe smokers (33 cases) and 5.3 (4.4, 6.4) for exclusive cigarette smokers (1,069 cases). For each smoking type, effects were stronger in current smokers than in ex-smokers and in inhalers than in non-inhalers. Ever smokers of both cigarettes and cigars [HR 5.7 (4.4, 7.3), 120 cases] and cigarettes and pipes [5.1 (4.1, 6.4), 247 cases] had as high a raised risk as had exclusive cigarette smokers. In these smokers, the magnitude of the raised risk was smaller if they had switched to cigars or pipes only (i.e., quit cigarettes) and had not compensated with greater smoking intensity. Cigar and pipe smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The lower cancer risk of cigar and pipe smokers as compared to cigarette smokers is explained by lesser degree of inhalation and lower smoking intensity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 127, no 10, 2402-2411 p.
Keyword [en]
cancer; cigar; pipe; smoking
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38266DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25252ISI: 000283563900017PubMedID: 20162568OAI: diva2:374076
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2015-04-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hallmans, GöranJohansson, Ingegerd
By organisation
Nutritional ResearchCariology
In the same journal
International Journal of Cancer

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 36 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link