Sex steroid regulation of the inflammatory response: Sympathoadrenal dependence in the female rat
1999 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 19, 4082-4089 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
To investigate the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the response of rats to the potent inflammatory mediator bradykinin (BK), we evaluated the effect of sex steroid manipulation on the magnitude of BK-induced synovial plasma extravasation (PE). The magnitude of BK-induced PE is markedly less in females. Ovariectomy of female rats increased BK-induced PE, and administration of 17 beta-estradiol to ovariectomized female rats reconstituted the female phenotype. Castration in male rats decreased BK-induced PE, and administration of testosterone or its nonmetabolizable analog dihydrotestosterone reconstituted the male phenotype. The results of these experiments strongly support the role of both male and female sex steroids in sex differences in the inflammatory response. Because the stress axes are sexually dimorphic and are important in the regulation of the inflammatory response, we evaluated the contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the sympathoadrenal axes to sex differences in BK-induced PE. Neither hypophysectomy nor inhibition of corticosteroid synthesis affected BK-induced PE in female or male rats. Adrenal denervation in females produced the same magnitude increase in BK-induced PE as adrenalectomy or ovariectomy, suggesting that the adrenal medullary factor(s) in females may account for the female sex steroid effect on BK-induced PE. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that in female but not male rats, estrogen receptor a! immunoreactivity is present on medullary but not cortical cells in the adrenal gland. These data suggest that regulation of the inflammatory response by female sex steroids is strongly dependent on the sympathoadrenal axis, possibly by its action on estrogen receptors on adrenal medullary cells.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 19, 4082-4089 p.
plasma extravasation; inflammation; sex differences; estrogen; testosterone; estrogen receptor; sympathoadrenal axis; hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-39184OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-39184DiVA: diva2:388818