umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Gene flow and selection on phenotypic plasticity in an island system of rana temporaria
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2011 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 3, 684-697 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gene flow is often considered to be one of the main factors that constrains local adaptation in a heterogeneous environment. However, gene flow may also lead to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the effect of gene flow on local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in development time in island populations of the common frog Rana temporaria which breed in pools that differ in drying regimes. This was done by investigating associations between traits (measured in a common garden experiment) and selective factors (pool drying regimes and gene flow from other populations inhabiting different environments) by regression analyses and by comparing pairwise F(ST) values (obtained from microsatellite analyses) with pairwise Q(ST) values. We found that the degree of phenotypic plasticity was positively correlated with gene flow from other populations inhabiting different environments (among-island environmental heterogeneity), as well as with local environmental heterogeneity within each population. Furthermore, local adaptation, manifested in the correlation between development time and the degree of pool drying on the islands, appears to have been caused by divergent selection pressures. The local adaptation in development time and phenotypic plasticity is quite remarkable, because the populations are young (less than 300 generations) and substantial gene flow is present among islands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 65, no 3, 684-697 p.
Keyword [en]
Gene flow;genetic drift;life-history evolution;local adaptation;natural selection;phenotypic plasticity
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40978DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01122.xPubMedID: 20825480OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-40978DiVA: diva2:404017
Available from: 2011-03-15 Created: 2011-03-15 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in island populations of Rana temporaria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in island populations of Rana temporaria
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes in different environments. Despite its common occurrence, few have investigated differences in plasticity between populations, the selection pressures responsible for it, and costs and constraints associated with it. In this thesis, I investigated this by studying local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations of the common frog Rana temporaria, inhibiting islands with different pool types (temporary, permanent or both). The tadpoles develop in these pools, and have to finish metamorphosis before the pool dries out.

I found that the tadpoles were locally adapted both in development time and in phenotypic plasticity of development time. Tadpoles from islands with temporary pools had a genetically shorter development time than tadpoles from islands with permanent pools. The population differentiation in development time, estimated as QST, was larger than the population differentiation in neutral molecular markers (FST), which suggest that divergent selection among the populations is responsible for the differentiation. Moreover, tadpoles from islands with more variation in pool drying regimes had higher phenotypic plasticity in development time than tadpoles from islands with only one pool type present. Interestingly, increased migration among populations did not select for increased plasticity, rather it was the local environmental variation that was important. This adaptation has occurred over a short time scale, as the islands are less than 300 generations old.

In temporary pools, it is adaptive to finish development before the pool dries out. This could be achieved by entering the metamorphosis at a smaller size, as a smaller size takes shorter time to reach. However, I found that there is a minimum threshold size below which tadpoles’ cannot enter metamorphosis, and that there had been no evolution of this threshold size in populations living in temporary environments. That suggests that this developmental threshold is tightly linked to physiological constraints in the developmental process.

Despite their expected importance as constrains on the evolution of plasticity, costs of plasticity are often not found in nature.  However, theories of why they are absent have not been tested empirically. In this thesis, I show that fitness costs of phenotypic plasticity are only found in populations with genotypes expressing high levels of phenotypic plasticity, while in populations with low-plastic genotypes, I find costs of not being plastic. This suggests that costs of plasticity increase with increased level of plasticity in the population, and that might be a reason why costs of plasticity are hard to detect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Ecology & Environmental Science, Umeå University, 2009. 58 p.
Keyword
Costs of plasticity, Developmental threshold, FST, Local adaptation, Phenotypic plasticity, Pool drying, QST
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26936 (URN)978-91-7264-836-4 (ISBN)
Distributor:
Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, 901 87, Umeå
Public defence
2009-11-27, KB3B1 (Stora Hörsalen), KBC, Umeå University, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-06 Created: 2009-11-03 Last updated: 2012-01-31Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Ingvarsson, Pär KJohansson, Frank

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lind, Martin IIngvarsson, Pär KJohansson, HelenaHall, DavidJohansson, Frank
By organisation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
In the same journal
Evolution
Developmental Biology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 276 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf