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Reindeer management during the colonization of Sami lands: a long-term perspective of vulnerability and adaptation strategies
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. (Adaptations of natural resource-based communities to climatic and societal changes ; Arcum)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9380-0821
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. (Adaptations of natural resource-based communities to climatic and societal changes ; Arcum)
2011 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, no 3, 1095-1105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reindeer husbandry’s strong connection to the land, together with the ongoing climate-change debate, has generated growing interest in its socio-ecological resilience and vulnerability. The ability of indigenous societies and their activities to respond to change is widely recognized to be dependent on several factors, such as socioeconomic forces and aspects of governance, all of which have long historical backgrounds. However, although historians constantly address questions about human societies, there have been very few historical studies on their resilience, vulnerability and adaptation strategies. Here, using historical so­urces, we analyze the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry (and the Sami societies that depended on it) in Sweden during the 19th century. We demonstrate that although reindeer management was a much more diverse enterprise at that time than it is now, the major adaptation strategy and constraining forces were similar to those of today. The foremost adaptation strategy was, and still is, the flexible use of pasture area, and the clearest constraints during the 19th century were the loss of authority over the land and the imposed regulation of reindeer management – both of which were strongly connected to the process of colonization.    

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 21, no 3, 1095-1105 p.
Keyword [en]
Adaptation, Reindeer management, Indigenous Peoples, Vulnerability, History, Sweden
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-41242DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.03.005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-41242DiVA: diva2:405266
Projects
"Adaptations of natural resource-based communities to climatic and societal changes” funded by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)Umeå University Young Researcher Award
Available from: 2011-03-22 Created: 2011-03-22 Last updated: 2016-05-17
In thesis
1. Histories of reindeer husbandry resilience: land use and social networks of reindeer husbandry in Swedish Sápmi 1740-1920
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Histories of reindeer husbandry resilience: land use and social networks of reindeer husbandry in Swedish Sápmi 1740-1920
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Historier om renskötselns resiliens : markanvändning och sociala nätverk inom renskötseln på den svenska sidan av Sápmi 1740-1920
Abstract [en]

Against a background of ongoing and predicted climatic and environmental change facing humans on a global level, this thesis combines historical perspectives with theories of social resilience in a study of reindeer husbandry in Swedish Sápmi, from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. The thesis includes four individual studies that examine the topic from different angles, connected together by reoccurring elements of social resilience. The first paper analyses the adaptive capacity of reindeer husbandry communities in the northernmost part of Swedish Sápmi during the 19th to early 20th century, using materials from the Sami bailiffs’ archives, governors’ reports and documentation from official committees. The second paper is based on similar materials and explores livelihood diversity of reindeer husbandry in southern and northern regions of Swedish Sápmi from 1860 to 1920. The third paper examines the social networks of reindeer husbandry and includes an analysis on how these are represented in demographic sources at the turn of the 20th century. The fourth and final paper examines taxation lands as objects of place-attachment in a south Sami reindeer husbandry context from 1740 to 1870.

The thesis demonstrates that communities and families practiced highly flexible herding in terms of what pasture area they used, when and how they used it and with whom. In order to maintain this flexibility, communities needed authority to manage their own livelihoods and a diverse and interconnected landscape. The results further show that reindeer husbandry was a dynamic and diverse livelihood, well into the 20th century. Fishing, hunting, trapping or farming was part of many reindeer herding families’ livelihoods. By tethering aspects of diversity to norms and ideals within the communities included in the study, I argue that farming can be understood as both an enforced adaptation and as an adaptive capacity depending on the ideals within the community in question.

The thesis supports the notions that reindeer husbandry since long has faced many challenges, including: border closings; competing land uses; disturbance from settlers; enforced regulations and laws concerning reindeer husbandry; and restrictions of livelihood diversity. Furthermore, these challenges were not only sources of disturbances in their own right, but they also restricted the adaptive capacity of reindeer herding communities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet, 2015. 107 p.
Series
Skrifter från Centrum för samisk forskning, ISSN 1651-5455 ; 21
Keyword
History, Sápmi, reindeer husbandry, resilience, adaptive capacity, livelihood diversity, taxation land, place-attachment, social organization
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100527 (URN)978-91-7601-233-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-27, Humanisthuset, Hörsal F, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-03-06 Created: 2015-03-04 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095937801100032X

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Brännlund, IsabelleAxelsson, Per

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Centre for Sami ResearchDepartment of historical, philosophical and religious studiesCentre for Population Studies (CPS)
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