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High impact loading on the skeleton is associated with a decrease in glucose levels in young men
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
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2012 (English)In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 77, no 6, 823-827 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective The skeleton has been suggested to be involved in energy metabolism through osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-specific molecule. The objective of this study was to investigate whether high impact exercise stimulating bone formation would lead to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism independent of cardiorespiratory effects, and if OC mediates this association.

Design Prospective intervention study.

Methods Fifty men aged 20-32 years were allocated to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group completed six different types of jumps in sets of five, with the frequency of these exercises gradually increasing over 8 weeks. At baseline and after 8 weeks, glycerol concentrations were measured in fat tissue as a marker of lipolysis by using microdialysis. Blood samples were assayed for OC and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer.

Results After adjustment for confounders at baseline and changes in physical activity during the intervention period, the intervention was associated with a decrease in levels of glucose (p = 0.04), adrenalin (p = 0.03) and OC (p=0.04) after adjusting for baseline levels and changes in physical activity. No other differences between the groups were significant, although the trends of the metabolic variables favored the intervention group.

Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high impact loading on the skeleton may affect glucose metabolism independent of the level of aerobic exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2012. Vol. 77, no 6, 823-827 p.
Keyword [en]
High impact loading, skeleton, osteocalcin, glucose
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-42508DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04461.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-42508DiVA: diva2:409437
Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue.

A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III).

In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if a high-impact loading intervention in the form of a series of jumps would lead to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. We found that the intervention group had significantly lowered serum glucose levels compared to the control group. Changes in all metabolic parameters favored the intervention group with an increase in lipolysis from baseline and a decrease in cholesterol.

In summary, the proportion of abdominal and gynoid fat mass displayed contrasting associations to both CVD risk factors and MI risk. Abdominal fat mass was associated with a higher risk while a high proportion of gynoid fat mass was associated with a lower risk. Bone mineral density displayed an inverse association with MI risk, seemingly independently of CVD risk factors, suggesting other explanations to a shared pathogenesis. Finally, high impact loading on the skeleton in young, healthy men decreased serum glucose levels and tended to improve other metabolic parameters, suggesting that the skeleton can affect energy metabolism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2011. 87 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1417
Keyword
Men, women, regional fat mass, bone mineral density, myocardial infarction, osteocalcin, high impact, longitudinal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-42083 (URN)978-91-7459-186-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-29, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-05 Last updated: 2011-04-08Bibliographically approved

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Wiklund, PederNordström, AnnaHögström, MagnusAlfredson, HåkanEngström, PatrikFranks, PaulNordström, Peter
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