umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
“If the patients decide not to tell what can we do?”: TB/HIV counsellors’ dilemma on partner notification for HIV
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. St. Mary Soledad Catholic Hospital, Mankon, Bamenda, P.O.Box 157, Cameroon.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7234-3510
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7087-1467
2011 (English)In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 11, 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: There is a global consensus towards universal access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services consequent to the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy. However, to benefit from these services, knowledge of one's HIV status is critical. Partner notification for HIV is an important component of HIV counselling because it is an effective strategy to prevent secondary transmission, and promote early diagnosis and prompt treatment of HIV patients' sexual partners. However, counsellors are often frustrated by the reluctance of HIV-positive patients to voluntarily notify their sexual partners. This study aimed to explore tuberculosis (TB)/HIV counsellors' perspectives regarding confidentiality and partner notification. Methods: Qualitative research interviews were conducted in the Northwest Region of Cameroon with 30 TB/HIV counsellors in 4 treatment centres, and 2 legal professionals between September and December 2009. Situational Analysis (positional map) was used for data analysis. Results: Confidentiality issues were perceived to be handled properly despite concerns about patients' reluctance to report cases of violation due to apprehension of reprisals from health care staffs. All the respondents encouraged voluntary partner notification, and held four varying positions when confronted with patients who refused to voluntarily notify their partners. Position one focused on absolute respect of patients' autonomy; position two balanced between the respect of patients' autonomy and their partners' safety; position three wished for protection of sexual partners at risk of HIV infection and legal protection for counsellors; and position four requested making HIV testing and partner notification routine processes. Conclusion: Counsellors regularly encounter ethical, legal and moral dilemmas between respecting patients' confidentiality and autonomy, and protecting patients' sexual partners at risk of HIV infection. This reflects the complexity of partner notification and demonstrates that no single approach is optimal, but instead certain contextual factors and a combination of different approaches should be considered. Meanwhile, adopting a human rights perspective in HIV programmes will balance the interests of both patients and their partners, and ultimately enhance universal access to HIV services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 11, 6
National Category
Medical Ethics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43853DOI: 10.1186/1472-698X-11-6ISI: 000291946300001PubMedID: 21639894OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-43853DiVA: diva2:416693
Available from: 2011-05-12 Created: 2011-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bridging the Gap: implementing tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS collaborative activities in the Northwest Region of Cameroon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the Gap: implementing tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS collaborative activities in the Northwest Region of Cameroon
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has led to the upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) infection globally, but most especially in areas with high HIV prevalence. In the past, there was lack of a coordinated global and national response between TB and HIV programmes to curb the devastating impacts of both infections. However, the ProTEST Initiative piloted in sub-Saharan Africa in 1997 demonstrated that TB and HIV programmes could collaborate successfully in delivering joint services. This prompted the development of the WHO interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities in 2004, aimed at reducing the burden of TB and HIV in populations affected by both infections. This thesis explores how collaborative activities between TB and HIV programmes have been established in Cameroon and implemented in the Northwest Region. It also highlights the achievements and constraints in delivering joint services to TB patients co-infected with HIV.

Methods

The study was conducted in the Northwest Region, one of the 10 regions of Cameroon with the highest HIV prevalence. The study uses health system research combining qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the research objectives. Qualitative methods were used to capture the perspectives of: i) the service providers; key informants from the central, regional and district levels concerned with the collaboration process and in delivering HIV services to TB patients, and ii) TB patients regarding HIV testing as an entry point to HIV services. Quantitative methods were used to ascertain TB patients’ access to HIV services provided for by the collaboration.

Results

The study demonstrated that although there were varying levels of collaboration between TB and HIV programmes from the central to operational level in the health system, delivering joint services was feasible. Furthermore, despite the challenges TB patients faced in testing for HIV, overall implementing TB/HIV collaborative activities increased TB patients’ acceptability and accessibility to HIV services. These were facilitated by the improved collaboration at the operational level, and enhanced service provider-patient alliance which was instrumental in building patients’ trust in the health system. Collaboration also led to cross-training and teamwork between staffs from both programmes, and improved networking between service providers and other actors involved in TB and HIV care. Nevertheless, there were health system constraints including inadequate leadership and management, shortage of human and infrastructural resources, frequent interruptions in the supply of essential drugs and laboratory materials

Conclusion

TB/HIV collaborative activities have improved service delivery and TB patients’ access to HIV services. Nonetheless, appropriate stewardship which guarantees joint planning, monitoring and evaluation of essential activities, and accountability at all levels in the health system is invaluable. Besides, the identified health system constraints which could adversely influence effective joint service delivery and a sustainable collaboration deserve due appraisal.

 

 

Abstract [fr]

Introduction

L’épidémie du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) a conduit à une augmentation globale  de la tuberculose(TB), particulièrement dans les régions à forte prévalence du VIH. Il y’avait par le passé un manque de coordination tant sur le plan mondial que national, des programmes de lutte contre la TB et le VIH pour freiner les effets dévastateurs liés à la co-infection des deux pathogènes. Cependant, l’initiative pilote “ProTEST”  conduite en 1997 en Afrique sub-saharienne  a démontré que les programmes de lutte contre le VIH et la TB pouvaient collaborer avec succès en combinant leurs services. Cette étude pilote a inévitablement incité a un changement de politique du bureau intérimaire a l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), de lutte contre le VIH/TB  à mettre sur pieds en 2004 des objectifs pour la réduction de l’impact du VIH/TB parmi les populations atteintes des deux infections. Cette thèse explore comment la collaboration entre les activités des programmes  de lutte VIH/TB a été établie au Cameroun, et comment son application se fait  dans la région du nord ouest. Il est également mis en exergue et les réalisations les difficultés que rencontrent les services combinés lors de la dispensation des soins aux malades de TB avec une coïnfection au VIH.

Méthodes

L’étude a été faite dans la région du nord ouest, une des 10 régions du Cameroun, avec le taux de prévalence au VIH le plus élevé. L’étude utilise le système de recherche en santé combinant des méthodes qualitatives et quantitatives pour explorer les objectifs de la recherche. Les méthodes qualitatives ont été utilisées pour enregistrer les données suivantes: i) centre offrant les services combinés; les personnes en charge au niveau central, régional, et des districts, qui sont responsables de l’intégration au processus et qui d’autre part veillent a ce que les malades de TB bénéficient des services du VIH ; et ii) les malades de TB qui considèrent le dépistage du VIH  comme porte d’entrée dans les services VIH. Des méthodes quantitatives ont été utilisées  pour confirmer  l’accès des malades de TB aux soins de services VIH offerts par la collaboration.

Résultats

L’étude a démontré que bien qu’il y ait  plusieurs niveaux de collaborations entre les programmes de VIH et TB depuis le sommet jusqu’ à la base du  système de santé, la provision de services combinés  est faisable. Malgré les difficultés rencontrées par les malades de TB pour avoir accès au dépistage du VIH, l’application en somme de la collaboration des activités entre les programmes de VIH et de TB a augmenté l’acceptation et l’accessibilité des malades de TB aux services de VIH. Ceci fut facilité par l’amélioration de la coopération au niveau des opérations des deux programmes permettant ainsi  la facilitation de l’établissement d’une alliance entre le personnel de soin et le patient, alliance qui fut primordiale dans l’élaboration du rapport de confiance que le malade doit avoir à l’endroit du system de santé. La collaboration a également conduit  à un travail d’équipe et une formation croisée entre les équipes des deux programmes, il a été également établi une amélioration du réseau d’échange entre les personnels de soins et toutes personnes actives dans le secteur du VIH et TB.    Néanmoins, il a été relevé des défis dans le système de santé telle une insuffisance dans le leadership et la gestion de fréquente interruption dans la chaine de distribution des médicaments essentiels et du matériel de laboratoire.

Conclusion

La collaboration des activités des programmes VIH/TB a amélioré la qualité des soins et services  avec pour résultante une meilleure accessibilité des malades de TB aux services de VIH. Néanmoins, une conduite appropriée qui garantie une planification mixte, une évaluation et un suivi des activités essentielles, ainsi qu’une gestion fiable a tous les niveaux du système de santé est indispensable. Outre, les difficultés liées au système de santé identifiées par cette étude et qui méritent une évaluation, du fait  qu’elles pourraient affecter négativement l’application effective du but recherché et la collaboration durable entre les deux services.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2011. 63 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1431
Keyword
Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, collaborative activities, Northwest Region, Cameroon.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43847 (URN)978-91-7459-228-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-10, Room 135, Building 9A, Family Medicine, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-13 Created: 2011-05-12 Last updated: 2015-04-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(937 kB)23 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 937 kBChecksum SHA-512
55462215c6df00c54de0c997d92fc88baf35cf0768a270954f317efbf8c4db6e95fe1657844646d81e6fc5f8161c1e3a88e946f956ab45cc3deacb94c8b00d8f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Njozing, Barnabas NEdin, Kerstin ESan Sebástian, MiguelHurtig, Anna-Karin
By organisation
Epidemiology and Global HealthUmeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS)
In the same journal
BMC International Health and Human Rights
Medical EthicsPublic Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 23 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 121 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf