Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase and the role of dNTP pools in genomic stability in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Every living organism is programmed to reproduce and to pass genetic information to descendants. The information has to be carefully copied and accurately transferred to the next generation. Therefore organisms have developed the network of conserved mechanisms to survey the protection and precise transfer of the genetic information. Such mechanisms are called checkpoints and they monitor the correct execution of different cell programs. The DNA damage and the replication blocks are surveyed by the conserved Mec1-Rad53 (human ATM/ATR and Chk2, respectively) protein kinase cascade. Mec1 and Rad53 are essential for survival and when activated orchestrate the multiple cellular responses, including the activation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), to the genotoxic stress. RNR is an enzyme producing all four dNTPs - the building blocks of the DNA - and is instrumental for the maintenance both proper concentration and balance of each of dNTPs. The appropriate concentration of the dNTPs should be strictly regulated since inadequate dNTP production can impede many cellular processes and lead to higher mutation rates and genome instability. Hence RNR activity is regulated at many levels, including allosteric and transcriptional regulation and the inhibition at protein level.
In our research, we addressed the question of the transcriptional regulation of RNR and the consequences of dNTP malproduction in the terms of the genomic stability. In yeast S. cerevisiae, four genes encode RNR: 2 genes encode a large subunit (RNR1 and RNR3) and 2 genes encode a small subunit (RNR2 and RNR4). All 4 genes are DNA-damage inducible: transcription of RNR2, RNR3 and RNR4 is regulated via Mec1-Rad53-Dun1 pathway by targeting the transcriptional repressor Crt1 (Rfx1) for degradation; on the contrary, RNR1 gene promoter does not contain Crt1-binding sites and is not regulated through the Mec1-Rad53-Dun1 pathway. Instead, we show that intrastrand cross (X)-link recognition protein (Ixr1) is required for the proper transcription of the RNR1 gene and maintenance of the dNTP pools both during unperturbed cell cycle and after the DNA damage. Thus, we identify the novel regulator of the RNR1 transcription.
Next, we show that the depletion of dNTP pools negatively affects genome stability in the hypomorphic mec1 mutants: the hyper-recombination phenotype in those mutants correlates with low dNTP levels. By introducing even lower dNTP levels the hyper-recombination increased even further and conversely all the hyper-recombination phenotypes were suppressed by artificial elevation of dNTP levels.
In conclusion, we present Ixr1 as a novel regulator of the RNR activity and provide the evidence of role of dNTP concentration in the genome stability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011. , 27 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1429
ribonucleotide reductase, dNTP, genome stability
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43978ISBN: 978-91-7459-236-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-43978DiVA: diva2:417494
2011-08-19, KB3A9, KBC-huset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Hammarsten, Ola, Professor
Chabes, Andrei, Dr
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