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Cognitive Training and the Need for Reality-Based Brain-Computer Interaction: Theoretical Background and Potential Applications
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computer-aided cognitive training has the potential to be an important tool in the increasingly important fight against dementia and cognitive decline. In order for this potential to be realized a number of challenges must be addressed. This paper presents an overview of the current state of related research with a focus on theoretical results that motivate the use of realistic and adaptive computer applications to address these challenges. This includes consideration of previous research on cognitive training within cognitive neuroscience, recent developments within human-computer interaction (HCI) and previous work relating to brain activity in virtual reality environments. The increasing popularity of reality-based interaction (RBI) and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is discussed and the unified concept of reality-based brain-computer interaction (RBBCI) is presented to capture the principles needed for the development of realistic and adaptive systems for cognitive training and to serve as a cornerstone concept for cross-disciplinary development.

Keyword [en]
cognitive training, reality-based brain-computer interaction, brain-computer interface, the free-energy principle, adaptive psychophysiological computing
National Category
Computer Science Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
människa-datorinteraktion
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-44902OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-44902DiVA: diva2:423024
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2011-06-15
In thesis
1. Reality-based brain-computer interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reality-based brain-computer interaction
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent developments within human-computer interaction (HCI) and cognitive neuroscience have come together to motivate and enable a framework for HCI with a solid basis in brain function and human reality. Human cognition is increasingly considered to be critically related to the development of human capabilities in the everyday environment (reality). At the same time, increasingly powerful computers continuously make the development of complex applications with realistic interaction easier. Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) make it possible to use an understanding of how the brain works in realistic environments to interpret brain measurements and adapt interaction in computer-generated virtual environments (VEs). Adaptive and realistic computer applications have great potential for training, rehabilitation and diagnosis. Realistic interaction environments are important to facilitate transfer to everyday reality and to gain ecological validity. The ability to adapt the interaction is very valuable as any training or learning must be done at the right level in order to optimize the development of skills.

The use of brain measurements as input to computer applications makes it possible to get direct information about how the brain reacts to aspects of a VE. This provides a basis for the development of realistic and adaptive computer applications that target cognitive skills and abilities. Theories of cognition and brain function provide a basis for how such cognitive skills develop, through internalization of interaction with the current environment. By considering how internalization leads to the neural implementation and continuous adaptation of mental simulations in the brain it is possible to relate designed phenomena in a VE to brain measurements.

The work presented in this thesis contributes to a foundation for the development of reality-based brain-computer interaction (RBBCI) applications by combining VR with emerging BCI methods based on an understanding of the human brain in human reality. RBBCI applications can be designed and developed to interact directly with the brain by interpreting brain measurements as responses to deliberate manipulations of a computer-generated reality. As the application adapts to these responses an interaction loop is created that excludes the conscious user. The computer interacts with the brain, through (the virtual) reality.

Abstract [sv]

Den senaste tidens utveckling inom människa-dator-interaktion (MDI) och kognitiv neurovetenskap har samverkat till att motivera och möjliggöra ett ramverk för MDI med en stabil grund i hjärnfunktion och människors verklighet. Mänsklig kognition anses till allt högre grad vara kritisk beroende av hur människors förmågor utvecklas i den vardagliga miljön (verkligheten). Samtidigt har ständigt kraftfullare datorer gjort det allt lättare att utveckla komplexa applikationer med realistisk interaktion. Framsteg inom kognitiv neurovetenskap och hjärna-dator-gränssnitt (brain-computer interface, BCI) gör det möjligt att dra nytta av en förståelse av hur hjärnan fungerar i realistiska miljöer för att tolka hjärnmätningar och anpassa interaktion i datorgenererade virtuella miljöer (virtual environment, VE). Adaptiva och realistiska datorapplikationer har stor potential för träning, rehabilitering och diagnostik. Realistiska interaktionsmiljöer är viktiga för att underlätta överföring (transfer) till vardagen och för att nå ekologisk validitet. Möjligheten att anpassa interaktion är mycket värdefull eftersom träning och lärande måste ske på rätt nivå för att optimera effekten.

Genom att använda sig av hjärnmätningar som indata till datorprogram blir det möjligt att få direkt information om hur hjärnan reagerar på olika aspekter av en VE. Detta ger en grund för utveckling av realistiska och adaptiva datorprogram som riktar in sig på kognitiva färdigheter och förmågor. Teorier om kognition och hjärnan ger en bas för att förstå hur sådana kognitiva färdigheter utvecklas genom att interaktion med omgivningen internaliseras. Genom att ta hänsyn till hur internalisering leder till ständig utveckling av mentala simuleringar i hjärnan är det möjligt att relatera designade fenomen i en VE till hjärnmätningar.

Det arbete som presenteras i denna avhandling lägger en grund för utveckling av verklighets-baserad hjärna-dator-interaktions (reality-based brain-computer interaction, RBBCI) applikationer genom att kombinera VR med nya BCI metoder, baserat på en förståelse av den mänskliga hjärnan i människans verklighet. RBBCI-program kan designas och utvecklas för att interagera direkt med hjärnan genom att tolka hjärnmätningar som respons på avsiktliga manipulationer av den datorgenererade verkligheten. När programmet anpassar sig till denna respons uppstår en interaktionsloop som exkluderar den medvetna användaren. Datorn interagerar med hjärnan, genom (den virtuella) verkligheten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, 2011. 55 p.
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 11.05
Keyword
reality-based brain-computer interaction, virtual reality, reality-based interaction, brain-computer interface, activity theory, the free-energy principle, grounded cognition
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Science
Research subject
människa-datorinteraktion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-44904 (URN)978-91-7459-245-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-06-20, MC413, MIT-building, Umeå University, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2011-06-15Bibliographically approved

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