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Drosophila Nora virus capsid proteins differ from those of other picorna-like viruses
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2011 (English)In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 160, no 1-2, 51-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recently discovered Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster is a single-stranded RNA virus. Its published genomic sequence encodes a typical picorna-like cassette of replicative enzymes, but no capsid proteins similar to those in other picorna-like viruses. We have now done additional sequencing at the termini of the viral genome, extending it by 455 nucleotides at the 5' end, but no more coding sequence was found. The completeness of the final 12,333-nucleotide sequence was verified by the production of infectious virus from the cloned genome. To identify the capsid proteins, we purified Nora virus particles and analyzed their proteins by mass spectrometry. Our results show that the capsid is built from three major proteins, VP4A, B and C, encoded in the fourth open reading frame of the viral genome. The viral particles also contain traces of a protein from the third open reading frame, VP3. VP4A and B are not closely related to other picorna-like virus capsid proteins in sequence, but may form similar jelly roll folds. VP4C differs from the others and is predicted to have an essentially α-helical conformation. In a related virus, identified from EST database sequences from Nasonia parasitoid wasps, VP4C is encoded in a separate open reading frame, separated from VP4A and B by a frame-shift. This opens a possibility that VP4C is produced in non-equimolar quantities. Altogether, our results suggest that the Nora virus capsid has a different protein organization compared to the order Picornavirales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2011. Vol. 160, no 1-2, 51-58 p.
Keyword [en]
RNA viruses, Picornavirales, Insect viruses, Capsid protein organization
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-45033DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2011.05.006PubMedID: 21605604OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-45033DiVA: diva2:425793
Note
Available online 13 May 2011 Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nora virus as a model to study persistent infection in Drosophila melanogaster
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nora virus as a model to study persistent infection in Drosophila melanogaster
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used as a model organism to study the immune responses against bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Here, I present a D. melanogaster virus as a model to study persistent virus infections. I have discovered and characterized the Nora virus, a small picorna-like RNA virus able to persistently infect D. melanogaster. The Nora virus genome encodes four open reading frames; a feature not present in other picorna-like viruses. The Nora virus is not closely related to any other virus family, but rather is the first virus in a new family of picorna-like viruses. The major replicative proteins of this virus are encoded in the second open reading frame and the capsid proteins are encoded in the fourth open reading frame. The sequence of the capsid proteins are not obviously related to any other previously described protein. By looking at expressed sequence tags (EST) projects, we identified an EST sequence from the parasitic wasp Nasonia which appears to encode proteins that have sequence similarity to the Nora virus capsid proteins. I have shown that the Nora virus persists in the fly intestine however I did not observe serious pathological effects in the infected flies. The virus is shed through feces and the transmission occurs horizontally via the ingestion of virus-contaminated food. Moreover, I observed variability in the viral titers among single flies of the same infected stock. Some flies are able to clear the Nora virus but not others and this phenomenon seems to be titer-dependent. Surprisingly, none of the known Drosophila antiviral responses play a role against the Nora virus. In conclusion, my work shows that studying the Nora virus interaction with the Drosophila immune system can lead to new findings on viral persistence mechanisms of RNA viruses and of Drosophila viral innate immunity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of molecular biology, 2009. 39 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1265
Keyword
Nora virus, Drosophial, persistence, transmission, RNAi, capsid proteins
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22129 (URN)978-91-7264-781-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-18, Major Groove, Institution för Molekylärbiologi, byggnad 6L, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2009-04-28 Created: 2009-04-23 Last updated: 2011-06-22Bibliographically approved

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Ekström, Jens-OlaHabayeb, Mazen SSrivastava, VaibhavKieselbach, ThomasWingsle, GunnarHultmark, Dan
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