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Serum lipid values in adolescents are related to family history, infant feeding, and physical growth.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
1995 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 117, no 1, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were analysed in 879 14- and 17-year-old healthy adolescents (477 boys and 402 girls), and related to family history of cardiovascular disease, early feeding, weight and length at birth, and physical growth during infancy and childhood. Mean TC was significantly higher in girls than in boys (4.4 and 4.2 mmol/l, respectively, both age-groups together). High TC values ( > 5.2 mmol/l) were more prevalent in girls than in boys: 14% and 17% compared to 6% and 12% in 14- and 17-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Mean TC and LDL-C values were lower during mid-puberty in both boys and girls while, in boys but not in girls, mean HDL-C values decreased and TG values increased successively with increasing pubertal stage. Girls who were taking oral contraceptives had higher mean values of TC (4.91/4.39 mmol/l), TG (1.32/0.83 mmol/l), and apo B (0.89/0.73 g/l). Boys with a family history of early deaths ( < 55 years) from myocardial infarction and girls with a family history of cerebral haemorrhage/thrombosis in fathers had higher mean values of TC (4.55/4.17 and 5.03/4.40 mmol/l, for boys and girls, respectively), LDL-C (2.84/2.47 and 3.08/2.56 mmol/l), and apo B (0.73/0.70 and 0.86/0.73 g/l). Adolescents with short duration of breast feeding ( < 6 months), or early introduction of infant formula, had higher mean values of TC (4.29/4.14 mmol/l) and apo B (0.72/0.68 g/l). There were no significant correlations between serum lipid values and body weight or length at birth, but adolescents with high LDL-C (upper quartile) seemed to have lower attained heights during infancy and childhood. In conclusion, this study shows that serum lipids in adolescence are primarily related to age and sex but also to early determinants like family history of cardiovascular diseases, infant feeding, and early physical growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1995. Vol. 117, no 1, 1-13 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-45431PubMedID: 8546746OAI: diva2:429421
Available from: 2011-07-04 Created: 2011-07-04 Last updated: 2015-03-16
In thesis
1. Cardiovascular risk indicators in adolescents: the Umeå youth study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular risk indicators in adolescents: the Umeå youth study
1995 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease, are today major causes of death in the industrialised parts of the world. There are evidence to suggest that the atherosclerotic process starts in childhood, implying that preventive measures should be implemented already in children and adolescents.

The aim of this study was to examine CVD risk indicators and their determinants in healthy Swedish adolescents. The study population comprised 14- and 17-year-old boys and girls (n=1032), in the dty and surroundings of Umeå in northern Sweden.

Biochemical, anthropometric, and physiological parameters associated to CVD (s- lipoproteins and s-apolipoproteins, s-insulin, s-ferritin, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and physical fitness) were evaluated in relation to family history of CVD, weight and length at birth, infant feeding regimen, physical growth during infancy and childhood, current diet, physical activity, smoking, and educational level and occupation of the parents.

The main findings of the study were that, on average, total serum cholesterol (TC) values in boys and girls were at the same level as reported from other European countries. A family history of CVD, short duration of breast feeding, low attained height during infancy and childhood, high body mass index (BMI), and low physical fitness were all associated with an unfavourable serum lipid profile. The findings also showed that features typical of the insulin resistance syndrome are present already in adolescents. In boys, iron stores, estimated by serum ferritin, were related to BMI and physical fitness, in a similar way as well established CVD risk indicators. Compared to previous dietary studies in Sweden, mean relative (energy %) fat intake had decreased substantially although the mean relative intake of saturated fat was still rather high. For both boys and girls, reported relative energy intake (energy intake/estimated energy expenditure) decreased with increasing level of BMI. Furthermore, daily smoking was more common among adolescents from families with low socio-economic status (SES) but was most strongly associated to smoking in peers. Tobacco use was considerably higher among adolescents attending vocational programs at secondary high school as compared to theoretical programs. Daily smokers had a more unfavourable serum lipid profile compared to non-smokers. Low socio-economic status of the parents was related to higher BMI and low educational level to higher dietary fat intake in both boys and girls.

In conclusion, the findings of the study show that parameters linked to adult CVD when examined in adolescents, are related to family history, infant nutrition, previous physical growth, current body composition, physical fitness, physical activity, smoking, and social status and educational level of the parents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 1995. 47 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 448
Cardiovascular risk factors, adolescents, serum lipids, serum insulin, serum ferritin, anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, physical activity, diet, smoking, socio-economic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-7540 (URN)91-7191-100-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
1995-12-08, Hörsal A, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00
Available from: 2008-01-10 Created: 2008-01-10 Last updated: 2015-04-08Bibliographically approved

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