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Dietary changes in Swedish adolescents.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
1993 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 82, no 5, 472-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A school-based dietary survey, using seven-day records, was performed in two cohorts of Swedish adolescents; 14- and 17-year-olds. The study comprised 366 boys and 365 girls. When compared to previous studies in Sweden, a striking finding was a decrease in dietary fat intake and an increase in carbohydrate intake. However, the relative intake of saturated fat had not changed (15% of total energy). The dietary change was mainly due to an increased consumption of cereal products. There were no major differences in dietary habits or nutrient density of the food between the two age groups, or between boys and girls. The mean intakes of protein, fat and carbohydrate, expressed as a percentage of the total energy intake, were 15, 33 and 52%, respectively. The mean intakes of vitamins and minerals were low only for selenium. The boys had a high iron intake (1.5 and 1.7 times the recommended intake for 14- and 17-year-olds, respectively) while the mean iron intake for girls was 0.9 times the recommended dietary allowances in both age groups. The intake of dietary salt was higher in boys than in girls (7.7 g and 9.0 g per day in 14- and 17-year-old boys, respectively, and 5.8 g per day in both 14- and 17-year-old girls). In a long-term health perspective, this positive change in nutrient intake in adolescents may contribute to a reduction in the incidence of diet-related diseases in Sweden.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1993. Vol. 82, no 5, 472-80 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-45435PubMedID: 8518525OAI: diva2:429447
Available from: 2011-07-04 Created: 2011-07-04 Last updated: 2015-03-16
In thesis
1. Cardiovascular risk indicators in adolescents: the Umeå youth study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular risk indicators in adolescents: the Umeå youth study
1995 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease, are today major causes of death in the industrialised parts of the world. There are evidence to suggest that the atherosclerotic process starts in childhood, implying that preventive measures should be implemented already in children and adolescents.

The aim of this study was to examine CVD risk indicators and their determinants in healthy Swedish adolescents. The study population comprised 14- and 17-year-old boys and girls (n=1032), in the dty and surroundings of Umeå in northern Sweden.

Biochemical, anthropometric, and physiological parameters associated to CVD (s- lipoproteins and s-apolipoproteins, s-insulin, s-ferritin, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and physical fitness) were evaluated in relation to family history of CVD, weight and length at birth, infant feeding regimen, physical growth during infancy and childhood, current diet, physical activity, smoking, and educational level and occupation of the parents.

The main findings of the study were that, on average, total serum cholesterol (TC) values in boys and girls were at the same level as reported from other European countries. A family history of CVD, short duration of breast feeding, low attained height during infancy and childhood, high body mass index (BMI), and low physical fitness were all associated with an unfavourable serum lipid profile. The findings also showed that features typical of the insulin resistance syndrome are present already in adolescents. In boys, iron stores, estimated by serum ferritin, were related to BMI and physical fitness, in a similar way as well established CVD risk indicators. Compared to previous dietary studies in Sweden, mean relative (energy %) fat intake had decreased substantially although the mean relative intake of saturated fat was still rather high. For both boys and girls, reported relative energy intake (energy intake/estimated energy expenditure) decreased with increasing level of BMI. Furthermore, daily smoking was more common among adolescents from families with low socio-economic status (SES) but was most strongly associated to smoking in peers. Tobacco use was considerably higher among adolescents attending vocational programs at secondary high school as compared to theoretical programs. Daily smokers had a more unfavourable serum lipid profile compared to non-smokers. Low socio-economic status of the parents was related to higher BMI and low educational level to higher dietary fat intake in both boys and girls.

In conclusion, the findings of the study show that parameters linked to adult CVD when examined in adolescents, are related to family history, infant nutrition, previous physical growth, current body composition, physical fitness, physical activity, smoking, and social status and educational level of the parents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 1995. 47 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 448
Cardiovascular risk factors, adolescents, serum lipids, serum insulin, serum ferritin, anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, physical activity, diet, smoking, socio-economic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-7540 (URN)91-7191-100-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
1995-12-08, Hörsal A, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00
Available from: 2008-01-10 Created: 2008-01-10 Last updated: 2015-04-08Bibliographically approved

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