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Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: an in vitro study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
2011 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, Vol. 69, no 5, 263-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Co-aggregation and growth inhibition abilities of probiotic bacteria may play a key role in their interference with the oral biofilm. The aim was to investigate the in vitro ability of selected commercial probiotic lactobacilli to co-aggregate and inhibit growth of oral mutans steptococci isolated from adults with contrasting levels of caries.

Materials and methods: Mutans streptococci (MS) strains were isolated from caries-free (n = 3) and caries-susceptible (n = 5) young adults and processed with eight commercial probiotic lactobacilli strains. One laboratory reference strain (S. mutans Ingbritt) was selected as control. Co-aggregation was determined spectrophotometrically and growth inhibition was assessed with the agar overlay technique.

Results: All probiotic lactobacilli showed an ability to co-aggregate with the isolated MS strains. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between strains from different individuals when compared with the reference strain. The selected lactobacilli inhibited MS growth, but the ability varied between the strains and was clearly related to pH. No differences were observed between the different MS strains from caries-free and caries-susceptible individuals.

Conclusions: The selected lactobacilli displayed co-aggregation activity and inhibited growth of clinical mutans streptococci. The growth inhibition was strain-specific and dependent on pH and cell concentration. The findings indicate that the outcome of lactobacilli-derived probiotic therapy might vary between individuals and depend on the specific strain used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Taylor & Francis , 2011. Vol. 69, no 5, 263-268 p.
Keyword [en]
Dental caries, oral microorganisms, probiotics
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46614DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2011.554863PubMedID: 21306197OAI: diva2:439424
Available from: 2011-09-07 Created: 2011-09-07 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Probiotic Lactobacilli in the context of dental caries as a biofilm-mediated disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probiotic Lactobacilli in the context of dental caries as a biofilm-mediated disease
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The World Health Organization defines probiotics as ‘live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host’. Traditionally, probiotic microorganisms have been used to prevent or treat gastrointestinal tract diseases. In the last 15 years, there has been increasing interest of a possible probiotic impact on the oral microbiota and dental caries. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and the causative factor in the oral microbiota includes a shift from a balanced microflora to a microflora that includes more aciduric species such as mutans streptococci (MS), non-mutans streptococci, and Actinomyces. MS is considered an opportunistic pathogen although several other bacteria also contribute to the disease. Early acquisition of MS is associated with early development of caries; therefore a desirable complement to other prophylactic measures would be a MS colonization inhibitor.

Objective: To better understand how selected strains of probiotic lactobacilli interact with MS in vitro and in vivo and to study the impact of probiotic lactobacilli on caries development during childhood.

Material and methods: The in vitro properties of probiotic lactobacilli were studied with regard to (i) acid production from sugars and sugar alcohols, (ii) growth inhibition capacity on clinical isolates and reference strains of MS as well as Candida albicans and (iii) the capacity to co-aggregate with MS. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the short-term effect of intervention with two Lactobacillus reuteri strains on MS, which was evaluated after treatment with chlorhexidine. The re-growth patterns of MS and 19 other selected strains were also evaluated. In the second clinical study  we investigated the long-term effect on MS prevalence and dental caries after an intervention with Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) between 4 and 13 months of age.

Results: The results from the in vitro testing showed that strains of probiotic lactobacilli differed in their fermentation patterns, inhibition capacity and their capacity to co-aggregate, which should be kept in mind in the translation to clinical research. The clinical study on short-term effects of two L. reuteri strains on MS and other oral strains showed no effect on re-growth patterns after intervention. The clinical study on long-term effects of LF19 showed no effect on the prevalence of MS. Furthermore, the clinical follow-up at 9 years of age showed no differences in either decayed, missing, and filled surface (dmfs) or DMFS between the probiotic and placebo groups. Evaluation of saliva samples showed no signs of oral colonization with LF19 in the study group.

Conclusion: The in vitro testing showed potentials of the selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains for interference with MS and C. albicans. The results from the clinical studies showed no such effect on MS or dental caries. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of specific probiotic applications in the prevention of dental caries is limited and does not allow for conclusions concerning the use of probiotic bacteria as a preventive measure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 57 p.
Umeå University odontological dissertations, ISSN 0345-7532 ; 125
caries prevention, co-aggregation, dental caries, growth inhibition, mutans streptococci, probiotic lactobacilli, re-colonization
National Category
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67843 (URN)978-91-7459-574-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-03, Sal B, Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-12Bibliographically approved

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