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Extra- and intrafusal muscle fibre type compositions of the human masseter at young age.: In perspective of growth and functional maturation of the jaw-face motor system.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Muscles control body posture and movement by extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibres. The purpose of this thesis was to provide insight into the muscular basis for human jaw function at young age. Extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in the young masseter, and for comparison young biceps, were examined for composition of fibre types and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms by means of morphological, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical and immuno-histochemical techniques. For evaluation of plasticity during life span the data for young muscles were compared with previous reported data for adult and elderly muscles.

The results showed significant differences in extrafusal fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps and between young masseter and masseter in adults and elderly. Compared with young biceps, young masseter was more intricate in composition of extrafusal MyHC expression. Muscle spindles were larger and more frequent in the masseter than in the biceps. Masseter and biceps muscle spindles showed fundamental similarities but also marked differences in MyHC expression.

The results suggest that the young masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern. Whereas masseter extrafusal fibres display marked plasticity in fibre types and MyHC isoforms during life span muscle spindles/intrafusal fibres are morphologically mature already at young age and precede extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation. Results showed similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also differences implying muscle specific proprioceptive control. Differences in fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps extrafusal fibres are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and accord with the masseter and biceps being separate allotypes of muscle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2011. , 76 p.
Series
Umeå University odontological dissertations, ISSN 0345-7532 ; 120
Keyword [en]
jaw, limb, human, muscle, morphology, fibre type, myosin heavy chain, muscle spindle
National Category
Dentistry
Research subject
Human Anatomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46667ISBN: 978-91-7459-285-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-46667DiVA: diva2:439776
Public defence
2011-09-30, Tandläkarhögskolan, byggnad 1D, 9 tr., sal B, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2012-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern
2011 (English)In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 7, 1158-1169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Liss, Inc., 2011
Keyword
enzyme- and immuno-histochemistry, fibre types, jaw, limb, morphology, myosin heavy chain
National Category
Dentistry
Research subject
Human Anatomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46418 (URN)10.1002/ar.21272 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-09-01 Created: 2011-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation
2011 (English)In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 4, 683-693 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Liss, Inc., 2011
Keyword
fiber types; intrafusal fibers; jaw muscle; skeletal muscle
National Category
Dentistry
Research subject
Odontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-41345 (URN)10.1002/ar.21347 (DOI)21370492 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-03-23 Created: 2011-03-23 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii
2012 (English)In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, no 4, 669-682 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46738 (URN)10.1007/s00418-012-0985-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences
2013 (English)In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, no 6, 895-907 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keyword
Jaw, Limb, Human, Muscle spindles, Intrafusal fibres, Myosin heavy chain, Immuno-histochemistry
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46771 (URN)10.1007/s00418-012-1072-7 (DOI)000319167800008 ()23306907 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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