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Association of adipose tissue blood flow with fat depot sizes and adipokines in women
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 36, no 6, 783-789 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To explore possible associations between adipose tissue (AT) blood flow (ATBF), AT depot sizes and adipocyte-derived hormones (adipokines) in women.

Subjects: In all, 43 healthy women were divided into four groups: normal-weight (n=11) and obese (n=11) pre-menopausal women and normal-weight (n=10) and obese (n=11) post-menopausal women.

Methods: Fasting levels of adipokines were obtained, and a single-slice computed tomography scan at the level of L4-L5 was used to estimate fat depot sizes. ATBF was assessed by xenon washout while in a fasting state and after oral glucose load. We also measured glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids.

Results: Total, subcutaneous and visceral AT areas strongly correlated with ATBF (all P<0.001). Circulating leptin levels strongly and inversely correlated with ATBF (P=0.001), but this association did not remain after adjustment for body mass index. Adiponectin was not associated with blood flow.

Conclusion: ATBF is closely linked to subcutaneous and visceral AT size. Further analyses are needed to determine possible mediators of this association, including mechanistic studies to assess a putative role for leptin as a significant modulator of blood flow. International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 July 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.152.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2012. Vol. 36, no 6, 783-789 p.
Keyword [en]
adipose tissue, blood flow, body fat distribution, leptin, women
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-48345DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2011.152ISI: 000305282400004PubMedID: 21792171OAI: diva2:448922
Available from: 2011-10-19 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2013-10-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Adipose tissue as an active organ:  blood flow regulation and tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adipose tissue as an active organ:  blood flow regulation and tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite advances in the treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. With the population getting older and more obese, the burden of cardiovascular disease may further increase. Premenopausal women are relatively protected against cardiovascular disease compared to men, but the reasons for this sex difference are partly unknown. Redistribution of body fat from peripheral to central depots may be a contributing factor. Central fat is associated with hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Two possible mediators of these metabolic disturbances are tissue-specific production of the stress hormone cortisol and adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF). The aim of this thesis was to determine the adipose tissue production of cortisol by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and to investigate the regulation of ATBF.

Materials and Methods: Cortisol release was estimated by labeled cortisol infusions and tissue-specific catheterizations of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in men. We investigated ATBF by 133Xe-washout and its relation to autonomic activity, endothelial function, adipose tissue distribution, and adipokines in different groups of women. We further investigated the effect of two diets and of weight loss on ATBF in women.

Results: We demonstrated significant cortisol release from subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. Splanchnic cortisol release was accounted for entirely by the liver. Cortisol release from VAT (to the portal vein) was not detected. ATBF decreased according to increasing weight and postmenopausal status, and the level of blood flow was associated with nitric oxide (NO) activity and autonomic activity. ATBF was also highly associated with leptin levels and both subcutaneous adipose tissue and VAT areas. After 6 months of diet and weight reduction, a significant difference in ATBF was observed between diet groups.

Conclusions: Our data for the first time demonstrate the contributions of cortisol generated from subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral tissues, and liver by 11β-HSD1. ATBF is linked to autonomic activity, NO activity, and the amount of adipose tissue (independent of fat depot). Postmenopausal overweight women exhibited a loss of ATBF flexibility, which may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction seen in this group. Weight loss in a diet program could not increase the ATBF, although there were ATBF differences between diet groups. The results will increase understanding of adipose tissue biology and contribute to the development of treatment strategies targeting obesity and obesity-related disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2011. 87 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1444
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, adipose tissue, autonomic nervous system, blood flow, cortisol, nitric oxide, weight loss.
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-48415 (URN)978-91-7459-280-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-11, Hörsal Betula, byggnad 6M, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2011-10-21 Created: 2011-10-19 Last updated: 2011-10-21Bibliographically approved

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