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International tourism development and poverty reduction in Lao PDR
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2011. , 84 p.
Series
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; 2011:4
Keyword [en]
pro-poor tourism, tourism development, poverty reduction, ethnic tourism, gender, Laos
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50070ISBN: 978-91-978344-8-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-50070DiVA: diva2:458867
Public defence
2011-12-16, Samverkanhuset, Triple Helix, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2011-11-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Tourism policy for poverty reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism policy for poverty reduction
2010 (English)In: International Journal of Culture and Tourism Research, ISSN 2005-6133, Vol. 3, no 1, 131-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines national tourism policies and two provincial tourism strategies of Lao PDR implemented during 1998 to 2010 and tourism strategies for 2020. It argues that poverty reduction has to be started from the policy framework which is intentionally targeting the poor. The discourse reproduces four dimensions of benefit included in tourism policies that can be trickled down to the poor including employment, linkage opportunities, knowledge base, and cultural assets as innovation for destination competitiveness. It can be concluded that those spaces for the poor are formulated under the assumptions of an ad hoc policy for the government as a plan for general social economic development rather than focusing on poverty reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Honam, Korea: World Cultural Tourism Association, Dept. of Tourism Management, Honam University , Korea, 2010
Keyword
Lao PDR, employment, linkage, knowledge base, cultural asset, poverty reduction
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40407 (URN)
Available from: 2011-02-22 Created: 2011-02-22 Last updated: 2011-11-24Bibliographically approved
2. Tourism and the question of poverty
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism and the question of poverty
2011 (English)In: Real tourism: Practice, care, and politics in contemporary travel culture / [ed] C. Minca, & T. Oakes, London: Routledge , 2011, , 23 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the practices of tourism in association with state poverty eradication and modernization strategies in Laos. Tourism is promoted vigorously in Laos as a means of developing the countryside, generating monetary income, and inducing structural shifts in local economies towards more commercial-oriented sectors. The paper argues that while tourism is having significant influence on rural social transformation, these outcomes are not always aligned with state objectives. Indeed, different development agendas promoted by different state agents at different scales and that these inevitably conflict with each other. The paper explores the reasons for this by considering the actual practices occurring in rural development program and tourism and suggesting that such practices necessitate a rethinking of the categories of behavior associated with elite ideas of ‘the tourist’ as a particular kind of subject position. The paper thus reflects on the tension between levels the state’s adoption of international narratives of nation, heritage, culture, and modernity on the one hand, and the reworking of these narratives in the actual practice of tourism in the other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2011. 23 p.
Keyword
Tourism, poverty reduction, modernization, Laos
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50076 (URN)
Note
In print 2011.Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2011-11-24Bibliographically approved
3. Ethnic tourism in Lao PDR: gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism for poverty reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic tourism in Lao PDR: gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism for poverty reduction
2014 (English)In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 17, no 4, 350-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simultaneous analysis of gender and ethnicity provides a fuller understanding of how tourism initiatives benefit marginalised groups in developing countries. In this article, the gendered division of labour is analysed as a way to understand the micro-politics of ethnic tourism production aiming at poverty reduction in Laos. The aim is to demonstrate how constructions of gender and ethnicity impact on women's possibilities to benefit from community-based pro-poor tourism initiatives. Socially constructed notions of gendered behaviour influence divisions of tourism labour in specific spatialities, which we argue is crucial knowledge in the implementation of tourism projects aiming at poverty reduction. The assumption that 'the poor' constitute a homogenous group might hide an uneven distribution of tourism benefits in local communities. By focusing on factors which marginalise women, the article demonstrates inequalities between men and women in the division of tourism work. A village in northern Laos is used as a case study to examine aspects impacting on gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism in Laos. Two examples, the Akha people's belief in and worship of spirits, and provision of massage, are used to illuminate reasons behind gendered imbalances in more detail.

Keyword
gender, ethnic minorities, community-based tourism, pro-poor tourism, Lao PDR
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50079 (URN)10.1080/13683500.2012.721758 (DOI)000335196200005 ()
Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. What is the economic impact of ecotourism for the poor in Lao PDR?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is the economic impact of ecotourism for the poor in Lao PDR?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecotourism has been promoted not least as a tool for reducing poverty in developing countries. This article quantifies the economic impact at the household level of two community-based ecotourism projects in northern Laos; one project is private and the other is publicly owned. This is done to illustrate how much economic benefit is distributed to poor households in the two communities. The study finds that ecotourism provides various linkage opportunities to the local economy through employment in the forms of guiding, cooking, massage, handicraft and accommodation. However, the distribution of income is maintaining inequality among different classes in these two communities. Gini coefficients show lower inequality in the village where the privately owned ecotourism company is based. The distributional effect of tourism income still spreads out unevenly between different groups of people in both cases. A minority of the population receives nearly half of their income from the publicly owned businesses. Thus ecotourism projects for poverty reduction cannot be assumed to provide benefits equally to all households. It is thus argued that poverty reduction measures should focus on the lowest income group. 

Keyword
ecotourism, income equality, economic impact, linkage, poverty reduction, Lao PDR
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50081 (URN)
Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2011-11-24Bibliographically approved

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