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Retention and maternal transfer of environmentally relevant polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after dietary exposure
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. (Environmental analytical chemistry using hyphenated and bioanalytical techniques)
Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. (EcoChange)
2012 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 4, 804-812 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), mono- and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are found in fish from coastal areas in the Baltic Sea, which may cause ecotoxicological effects. To increase our understanding of the persistency of the emerging pollutants polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), fish feed was spiked with 21 PBDD/Fs, 17 PCDD/Fs, and 30 PCBs and fed to zebrafish. Concentrations in fish and eggs were examined during a six- or twelve-week uptake period, and a six-week elimination period. Steady-state was reached for 2, 3, 7, and/or 8-substituted tri- and tetra-BDD/Fs, with 2,3,7,8-tetra-BDD (2,3,7,8-TeBDD) being the most strongly retained. Steady-state was not reached for tetra- to hexa-CDDs. Non-2,3,7,8-congeners showed little of or no retention. Most PCBs had high retention and did not reach steady-state. Half-lives decreased in the order: PCBs > PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-penta- to octa-CDD/Fs decreased with their degree of chlorination suggesting that the rate-limiting factor for uptake is low bioavailability. Maternal transfer was observed for all retained compounds, with most transfer factors < 1, indicating that transfer rates are affected by the poor water solubility of the compounds. The limited retention of the major PBDD congeners found in Baltic Sea fish suggests that they are exposed to high or very high concentrations via either food or water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Vol. 31, no 4, 804-812 p.
Keyword [en]
polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dietary uptake, metabolism, maternal transfer, zebrafish
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50900DOI: 10.1002/etc.1750ISI: 000301575700016PubMedID: 22278820OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-50900DiVA: diva2:470830
Available from: 2011-12-30 Created: 2011-12-30 Last updated: 2017-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: Natural formation mechanisms and biota retention, maternal transfer, and effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: Natural formation mechanisms and biota retention, maternal transfer, and effects
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDD) and dibenzofurans (PBDF) are a group of compounds of emerging interest as potential environmental stressors. Their structures as well as toxic responses are similar to the highly characterized toxicants polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. High levels of PBDDs have been found in algae, shellfish, and fish, also from remote areas in theBaltic Sea. This thesis presents studies on PBDD behavior in fish and offspring, and natural formation of PBDDs from naturally abundant phenolic precursors.

The uptake, elimination, and maternal transfer of mono- to tetraBDD/Fs were investigated in an exposure study reported in Paper I. The effects of PBDDs in fish were examined in a dose-response study (Paper II). It was shown that fish can assimilate PBDD/Fs from their feed, although non-laterally substituted congeners were rapidly eliminated. Laterally substituted congeners were retained as was congeners without vicinal hydrogens to some extent. PBDD/Fs were transferred to eggs, and congeners that were rapidly eliminated in fish showed a higher transfer ratio to eggs. Exposure to the laterally substituted 2,3,7,8-TeBDD had significant effects on the health, gene expression and several reproduction end-points of zebrafish, even at the lowest dose applied.

The geographical and temporal variations of PBDD in biota samples from the Baltic Seasuggest biogenic rather than anthropogenic origin. In Paper III, bromoperoxidase-mediated coupling of 2,4,6-tribromophenol yielded several PBDD congeners, some formed after rearrangement. The overall yield was low, but significantly higher at low temperature, and the product profile obtained was similar to congener profiles found in biota from the Swedish West Coast. In Paper IV, photo­chemi­cally induced cyclization of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers under natural conditions produced PBDDs at percentage yield. Rearranged products were not detected, and some abundant congeners do not seem to be formed this way. However, the product profile obtained was similar to congener profiles found in biota from the Baltic Proper.

Since the PBDD congeners found in biota have a high turn-over in fish, the exposure must be high and continuous to yield the PBDD levels measured in wild fish. Thus, PBDDs must presumably be formed by common precursors in general processes, such as via enzymatic oxidations, UV-initiated reactions or a combination of both. The presented pathways for formation of PBDDs are both likely sensitive to changes in climatic conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2012. 65 p.
Keyword
polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PBDDs, Baltic Sea, uptake, retention, maternal transfer, metabolism, bioavailability, natural formation, precursor, bromoperoxidase, bromophenol, photochemical transformation, oxidative coupling, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50887 (URN)
Public defence
2012-02-03, KBC-huset, Hörsal KB3B1, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-29 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved

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