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Metadata Management in Multi-Grids and Multi-Clouds
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grid computing and cloud computing are two related paradigms used to access and use vast amounts of computational resources. The resources are often owned and managed by a third party, relieving the users from the costs and burdens of acquiring and managing a considerably large infrastructure themselves. Commonly, the resources are either contributed by different stakeholders participating in shared projects (grids), or owned and managed by a single entity and made available to its users with charging based on actual resource consumption (clouds). Individual grid or cloud sites can form collaborations with other sites, giving each site access to more resources that can be used to execute tasks submitted by users. There are several different models of collaborations between sites, each suitable for different scenarios and each posing additional requirements on the underlying technologies.

Metadata concerning the status and resource consumption of tasks are created during the execution of the task on the infrastructure. This metadata is used as the primary input in many core management processes, e.g., as a base for accounting and billing, as input when prioritizing and placing incoming task, and as a base for managing the amount of resources allocated to different tasks.

Focusing on management and utilization of metadata, this thesis contributes to a better understanding of the requirements and challenges imposed by different collaboration models in both grids and clouds. The underlying design criteria and resulting architectures of several software systems are presented in detail. Each system addresses different challenges imposed by cross-site grid and cloud architectures:

  • The LUTSfed approach provides a lean and optional mechanism for filtering and management of usage data between grid or cloud sites.

  • An accounting and billing system natively designed to support cross-site clouds demonstrates usage data management despite unknown placement and dynamic task resource allocation.

  • The FSGrid system enables fairshare job prioritization across different grid sites, mitigating the problems of heterogeneous scheduling software and local management policies.

The results and experiences from these systems are both theoretical and practical, as full scale implementations of each system has been developed and analyzed as a part of this work. Early theoretical work on structure-based service management forms a foundation for future work on structured-aware service placement in cross- site clouds. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, Department of Computing Science , 2011. , 120 p.
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 11.08
Keyword [en]
grid computing, cloud computing, accounting, billing, metadata, monitoring, structure, fairshare, scheduling, federated
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51159ISBN: 978-91-7459-281-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-51159DiVA: diva2:476055
Presentation
2011-10-06, Naturvetarhuset, N320, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-25 Created: 2012-01-11 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Distributed usage logging for federated grids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed usage logging for federated grids
2010 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 26, no 8, 1215-1225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a non-intrusive solution to the increasingly important problem of shared logging for overlapping and federated Grid environments. The solution addresses three usage scenarios of hierarchical Grids, mutual cross-Grid resource utilization, and federated Cloud computing infrastructures. The approach is evaluated by extending the existing SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) with a light-weight component that makes the system applicable to a wide range of usage scenarios. The proposed architecture is characterized by its simplicity, flexibility, and generality, and the new key component by its non-intrusiveness, flexibility, and ability to manage high load. We present requirements derived from three usage scenarios, and also include an in-depth description of the architecture and design, as well as the implementation and performance evaluation of a new component written for use with SGAS. We conclude from a performance evaluation that the sharing of usage data is not likely to be a limiting performance factor even in large-scale Grid scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Accounting; Shared logging; Grid computing; SGAS; Federated Grids; Federated Clouds
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-29915 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2010.02.001 (DOI)000281508700016 ()
Note

Daniel Henriksson Se även Daniel Espling

Available from: 2009-11-27 Created: 2009-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Accounting and Billing for Federated Cloud Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting and Billing for Federated Cloud Infrastructures
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC 2009) / [ed] Juan. E. Guerrero, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2009, 268-275 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emerging Cloud computing infrastructures provide computing resources on demand based on postpaid principles. For example, the RESERVOIR project develops an infrastructure capable of delivering elastic capacity that can automatically be increased or decreased in order to cost-efficiently fulfill established Service Level Agreements. This infrastructure also makes it possible for a data center to extend its total capacity by subcontracting additional resources from collaborating data centers, making the infrastructure a federation of Clouds. For accounting and billing, such infrastructures call for novel approaches to perform accounting for capacity that varies over time and for services (or more precisely virtual machines) that migrate between physical machines or even between data centers. For billing, needs arise for new approaches to simultaneously manage postpaid and prepaid payment schemes for capacity that varies over time in response to user needs. In this paper, we outline usage scenarios and a set of requirements for such infrastructures, and propose an accounting and billing architecture to be used within RESERVOIR. Even though the primary focus for this architecture is accounting and billing between resource consumers and infrastructure provides, future support for inter-site billing is also taken into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society Press, 2009
Keyword
accounting, billing, cloud computing, grid computing, SGAS, RESERVOIR
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-29904 (URN)10.1109/GCC.2009.37 (DOI)
Conference
Eighth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC 2009), 27-29 August, Lanzhou, China
Note

Daniel Henriksson Se även Daniel Esping

Available from: 2009-11-26 Created: 2009-11-26 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved
3. Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), IEEE, 2011, 173-178 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud infrastructure providers may form Cloud federations to cope with peaks in resource demand and to make large-scale service management simpler for service providers. To realize Cloud federations, a number of technical and managerial difficulties need to be solved. We present ongoing work addressing three related key management topics, namely, specification, scheduling, and monitoring of services. Service providers need to be able to influence how their resources are placed in Cloud federations, as federations may cross national borders or include companies in direct competition with the service provider. Based on related work in the RESERVOIR project, we propose a way to define service structure and placement restrictions using hierarchical directed acyclic graphs. We define a model for scheduling in Cloud federations that abides by the specified placement constraints and minimizes the risk of violating Service-Level Agreements. We present a heuristic that helps the model determine which virtual machines (VMs) are suitable candidates for migration. To aid the scheduler, and to provide unified data to service providers, we also propose a monitoring data distribution architecture that introduces cross-site compatibility by means of semantic metadata annotations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE Symposium on Computers & Communications (ISCC), ISSN 1530-1346
Keyword
cloud computing, scheduling, monitoring, service structure
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40268 (URN)10.1109/ISCC.2011.5984012 (DOI)000298614900034 ()978-1-4577-0678-3 (ISBN)978-1-4577-0680-6 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (lSCC)and First International Workshop on Management of Cloud Systems (MoCS 2011), Corfu, Greece, June 28-July 1, 2011
Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
4. Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling
2013 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 29, no 1, 130-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work addresses Grid fairshare allocation policy enforcement and presents Aequus, a decentralized system for Grid-wide fairshare job prioritization. The main idea of fairshare scheduling is to prioritize users with regard to predefined resource allocation quotas. The presented system builds on three contributions: a flexible tree-based policy model that allows delegation of policy definition, a job prioritization algorithm based on local enforcement of distributed fairshare policies, and a decentralized architecture for non-intrusive integration with existing scheduling systems. The system supports organization of users in virtual organizations and divides usage policies into local and global policy components that are defined by resource owners and virtual organizations. The architecture realization is presented in detail along with an evaluation of the system behavior in an emulated environment. In the evaluation, convergence noise types (mechanisms counteracting policy allocation convergence) are characterized and quantified, and the system is demonstrated to meet scheduling objectives and perform scalably under realistic operating conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Grid scheduling, Fairshare scheduling, Grid allocation policy enforcement
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40492 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2012.06.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-24 Created: 2011-02-24 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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