Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 66, no 6, 694-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Vasterbotten. In 37 639 men (1460 deaths) and 39 680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Vasterbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression.
RESULTS: Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010).
CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2012. Vol. 66, no 6, 694-700 p.
diet, survival, macronutrients, protein intake, carbohydrate intake, cohort study
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nutrition and Dietetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51822DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.9ISI: 000305087800007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-51822DiVA: diva2:489357