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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a semiaquatic plant and semipermeable membrane devices exposed to air in Thailand
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2003 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 37, no 1, 47-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at six sites in the Bangkok region, Thailand, to investigate spatial variations in atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sampling sites affected by various levels of traffic intensity were studied. In addition, PAH levels were determined in a common human food plant (water spinach) harvested from canals and ponds in the sampling areas. Significant differences in atmospheric PAH concentrations between sites were found, with 10 times higher PAH levels in the urban areas compared to the rural areas. Increasing concentrations of 1-methylphenanthrene relative to phenanthrene were found in the urban air close to the city center, indicating that traffic probably contributed to the higher PAH concentrations detected. Due to SPMD's passive sampling technique, their long-term operation and high ability to detect spatial differences, they proved to be suitable for semiquantitative field studies of PAHs. The PAH compounds sampled with SPMDs were mainly associated with gaseous PAHs, while both gas phase and particle-bound PAHs were detected in the plant samples. The relative abundance ratios of some PAHs in the plants were not well correlated with the ratios detected in the SPMDs, indicating that gas-phase exposure made low contribution to the PAH concentrations in the plants. However, similarities in the profiles of 3-ring PAHs between the SPMD and plant samples indicate that gas-phase exchange occurs between the atmosphere and the plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 37, no 1, 47-52 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52281PubMedID: 12542289OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-52281DiVA: diva2:503567
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Semipermeable membrane devices as integrative tools for monitoring nonpolar aromatic compounds in air
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semipermeable membrane devices as integrative tools for monitoring nonpolar aromatic compounds in air
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Air pollutants pose a high risk for humans, and the environment, and this pollution is one of the major environmental problems facing modern society. Active air sampling is the technique that has been traditionally used to monitor nonpolar aromatic air pollutants. However, active high volume samplers (HiVols) require a power supply, maintenance and specialist operators, and the equipment is often expensive. Thus, there is a need to develop new, less complicated sampling techniques that can increase the monitoring frequency, the geographical distribution of the measurements, and the number of sites used in air monitoring programs. In the work underlying this thesis, the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as tools for monitoring gas phase concentrations of nonpolar aromatic compound was evaluated using the compound classes polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) as test compounds.

High wind-speeds increased the uptake and release in SPMDs of PAHs and PCBs with log KOA values > 7.9, demonstrating that the uptake of most nonpolar aromatic compounds is controlled by the boundary layer at the membrane-air interface. The use of a metal umbrella to shelter the SPMDs decreased the uptake of PAHs and PCBs by 38 and 55 percent, respectively, at high wind/turbulence, and thus reduced the wind effect. Further, the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs) to assess the site effect of wind on the uptake in SPMDs reduced the between-site differences to less than 50 percent from as much as three times differences in uptake of PCBs and PAHs. However, analytical interferences reduced the precision of some PRCs, showing the importance of using robust analytical quality control.

SPMDs were shown to be efficient samplers of gas phase nonpolar aromatic compounds, and were able to determine local, continental and indoor spatial distributions of PAHs, alkyl- PAHs and nitro-PAHs. In addition, the use of the SPMDs, which do not require electricity, made sampling possible at remote/rural areas where the infrastructure was limited. SPMDs were also used to determine the source of PAH pollution, and different approaches were discussed. Finally, SPMDs were used to estimate the importance of the gas phase exposure route to the uptake of PAHs in plants. The results demonstrate that SPMDs have several advantages compared with HiVols, including integrative capacity over long times, reduced costs, and no need of special operators, maintenance or power supply for sampling. However, calibration data of SPMDs in air are limited, and spatial differences are often only semi-quantitatively determined by comparing amounts and profiles in the SPMDs, which have limited their use in air monitoring programs. In future work, it is therefore important that SPMDs are properly sheltered, PRCs are used in the sampling protocols, and that calibrated sampling rate data, or the SPMD-air partition data, of specific compounds are further developed to make determination of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi, 2004. 93 p.
Keyword
Environmental chemistry, air pollution, alkyl-PAHs, atmosphere, bioavailability, boundary layer, diffusive sampling, emissions, integrative, membrane, monitoring, nitro-PAHs, PAHs, particles, passive samplers, PCBs, plants, PRCs, release rate, sampler design, sources, SPMDs, traffic, uptake rate, wind effect, wood burning, Miljökemi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-378 (URN)91-7305-782-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-10, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå universitetsområdet, Umeå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2012-06-28Bibliographically approved

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