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A comparison of bone mineral density and muscle strength in young male adults with different exercise level.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
1999 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 64, no 6, 490-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate any differences in bone mass at different sites between young adults subjected to a high physical activity and a group of young adults with a low level of physical activity. In addition, we compared the relationship among bone mass, muscle strength, and body constitution in these two groups. The reference group consisted of 20 men, age 24.6 +/- 2.3 years, not training for more than 3 hours per week. The ice hockey players consisted of 20 players, age 23.4 +/- 4.9 years, from an ice hockey team in the second highest national Swedish league, training for about 10 hours per week. The groups were matched according to age, height, and weight. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, humerus, spine, pelvis, femur, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, femur diaphysis, proximal tibia, and tibia diaphysis using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD was significantly higher in the total body (8.1%), humerus (11.4%), spine (12.7%), pelvis (12.4%), femoral neck (10.3%), femur (7.4%), proximal tibia (9.8%), and tibia diaphysis (7.5%) in the high activity group. Fat mass was significantly lower in the high activity group (18.7%). The high activity group also had a significantly higher lean body mass (5.4%) and a significantly higher isokinetic muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle compared with the reference group. In the reference group, there was a general strong independent relationship between muscle strength of the thigh and all BMD sites, except for the head, tibia diaphysis, and proximal tibia. Furthermore, in the same group, body mass index (BMI) independently predicted pelvis BMD. On the contrary, in the high activity group, muscle strength did not predict any BMD site at all. In the same group, body constitutional parameters (weight, height, and fat mass) independently predicted pelvis BMD, and BMI was shown to be an independent predictor of humerus BMD. The differences in BMD between the groups seem to be site-specific and may be associated with the type and magnitude of loading during off season training and preferentially during ice hockey. High physical activity seems to weaken the relationship between BMD and muscle strength. Hence, impact forces may be of greater importance in regulating bone mass than muscle strength in itself in highly trained athletes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 64, no 6, 490-8 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Clinical Medicine Orthopedics
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52721PubMedID: 10341021OAI: diva2:506850
Available from: 2012-03-01 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2012-03-05
In thesis
1. Bone mass in the young athlete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass in the young athlete
1999 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone mass and bone size accumulate during childhood and adolescence and peak in the twenties. The obtained peak bone mass has been suggested to be a major determinant of bone mass even in the very elderly. Although, genetic factors are the main determinants, environmental and lifestyle factors also play a crucial role in modulating maximal bone mass. Assessing these lifestyle factors would be of great importance for the intervention strategies against osteoporosis.  

The first aim of this thesis was to compare the bone mass and bone size in male and female young adults on a high level of physical activity with males or females on a low level of physical activity. Furthermore, it also aimed to investigate the influence of pubertal maturity, menstrual disturbances, and different body constitutional factors on bone mass and size during adolescence and young adulthood.  

The female activity groups consisted of cross-county skiers, soccer players, and rope skippers. Compared to their age-matched inactive controls, all these athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Rope-skipping, a very high impact activity was associated with a higher bone size, preferentially in the lower extremity, suggesting an effect of weight-bearing activity also on bone geometry. The effect of menstrual disturbances was evaluated in a group of long-distance runners, where amenorrheic runners had significantly lower BMD in both trabecular and also cortical bone in the lower extremity compared to eumenorrheic runners, suggesting that weight-bearing activity cannot compensate for the shortfall of reduced estrogen levels.  

The male activity groups consisted of ice hockey players and badminton players. Compared to their age-matched controls, both athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher BMD at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Especially badminton was associated with a high BMD, suggesting that physical activity, including jumps in unusual directions has a great osteogenic potential.  

The main determinants of BMD in both male and females were, except for type of physical activity, activity, muscle strength, height, and different body constitutional factors. However, the relationships with muscle strength and body constitution were somewhat weaker in the athletic groups, especially in the males, indicating that impact forces may be of greater importance in regulating bone mass in highly trained athletes. Yet bone size was largely determined by parameters related to body size and less strongly to physical activity. In a prospective study on adolescent boys, the changes in bone mass during late puberty were mainly accounted for by growth and development, including height and pubertal maturation, and less to physical activity level. Thus, the osteogenic effect from physical activity seems to be of importance for bone mass achievement predominantly before late puberty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 1999. 300 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 635
bone mass, bone area, physical activity, muscle strength, body constitution, amenorrhea, puberty, adolescents, young aduts
National Category
Clinical Medicine Orthopedics Other Clinical Medicine
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52747 (URN)91-7191-726-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
1999-12-10, Kempesalen, IKSU-hallen, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2012-03-05Bibliographically approved

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