umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Type of physical activity, muscle strength, and pubertal stage as determinants of bone mineral density and bone area in adolescent boys.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
1998 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 13, no 7, 1141-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of different types of weight-bearing physical activity, muscle strength, and puberty on bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and bone area in adolescent boys. Three different groups were investigated. The first group consisted of 12 adolescent badminton players (age 17.0 +/- 0.8 years) training for 5.2 +/- 1.9 h/week. The second group consisted of 28 ice hockey players (age 16.9 +/- 0.3 years) training for 8.5 +/- 2.2 h/week. The third group consisted of 24 controls (age 16.8 +/- 0.3 years) training for 1.4 +/- 1.4h/week. The groups were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, g), and the bone area of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, femur and tibia diaphyses, distal femur, proximal tibia, and humerus were measured using dual-energy X-absorptiometry. When adjusting for the difference in body weight between the groups, the badminton players were found to have significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) of the trochanter and distal femur compared with the ice hockey players despite a significantly lower weekly average training. The badminton players had higher BMD compared with the control with the control group at all weight-bearing BMD sites, except at the diaphyses of the femur and tibia and lumbar spine. The independent predictors of bone density were estimated by adjusting BMC for the bone area in a multivariate analysis among all subjects (n = 64). Accordingly, the bone density of all sites except the spine was significantly related to muscle strength and height, and the bone density of the total body, neck, trochanter, distal femur, and proximal tibia was significantly related to type of physical activity (beta = 0.09-0.33, p < 0.05). The bone area values at different sites were strongly related to muscle strength and height and less strongly related to the type of physical activity and pubertal stage. In conclusion, it seems that during late puberty in adolescent boys the type of weight-bearing physical activity is an important determinant of bone density, while the bone area is largely determined by parameters related to body size. The higher BMD at weight-bearing sites in badminton players compared with ice hockey players, despite significantly less average weekly training, indicates that physical activity including jumps in unusual directions has a great osteogenic potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1998. Vol. 13, no 7, 1141-8 p.
Keyword [en]
Physical activity, BMD
National Category
Orthopedics
Research subject
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52719DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.7.1141PubMedID: 9661078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-52719DiVA: diva2:506854
Available from: 2012-03-01 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Bone mass in the young athlete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass in the young athlete
1999 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone mass and bone size accumulate during childhood and adolescence and peak in the twenties. The obtained peak bone mass has been suggested to be a major determinant of bone mass even in the very elderly. Although, genetic factors are the main determinants, environmental and lifestyle factors also play a crucial role in modulating maximal bone mass. Assessing these lifestyle factors would be of great importance for the intervention strategies against osteoporosis.  

The first aim of this thesis was to compare the bone mass and bone size in male and female young adults on a high level of physical activity with males or females on a low level of physical activity. Furthermore, it also aimed to investigate the influence of pubertal maturity, menstrual disturbances, and different body constitutional factors on bone mass and size during adolescence and young adulthood.  

The female activity groups consisted of cross-county skiers, soccer players, and rope skippers. Compared to their age-matched inactive controls, all these athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Rope-skipping, a very high impact activity was associated with a higher bone size, preferentially in the lower extremity, suggesting an effect of weight-bearing activity also on bone geometry. The effect of menstrual disturbances was evaluated in a group of long-distance runners, where amenorrheic runners had significantly lower BMD in both trabecular and also cortical bone in the lower extremity compared to eumenorrheic runners, suggesting that weight-bearing activity cannot compensate for the shortfall of reduced estrogen levels.  

The male activity groups consisted of ice hockey players and badminton players. Compared to their age-matched controls, both athletic groups demonstrated a significantly higher BMD at those sites subjected to the sport-specific loading. Especially badminton was associated with a high BMD, suggesting that physical activity, including jumps in unusual directions has a great osteogenic potential.  

The main determinants of BMD in both male and females were, except for type of physical activity, activity, muscle strength, height, and different body constitutional factors. However, the relationships with muscle strength and body constitution were somewhat weaker in the athletic groups, especially in the males, indicating that impact forces may be of greater importance in regulating bone mass in highly trained athletes. Yet bone size was largely determined by parameters related to body size and less strongly to physical activity. In a prospective study on adolescent boys, the changes in bone mass during late puberty were mainly accounted for by growth and development, including height and pubertal maturation, and less to physical activity level. Thus, the osteogenic effect from physical activity seems to be of importance for bone mass achievement predominantly before late puberty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 1999. 300 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 635
Keyword
bone mass, bone area, physical activity, muscle strength, body constitution, amenorrhea, puberty, adolescents, young aduts
National Category
Clinical Medicine Orthopedics Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52747 (URN)91-7191-726-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
1999-12-10, Kempesalen, IKSU-hallen, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2012-03-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Pettersson, Ulrika

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Pettersson, Ulrika
By organisation
Sports Medicine
In the same journal
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
Orthopedics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 136 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf