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Predicting survival for surgery of metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer: a new score
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
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2012 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 37, no 26, 2168-2176 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Study design. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic factors for survival in prostate cancer patients operated for metastatic spinal cord compression.

Objective. The aim was to obtain a clinical score for prediction of survival after surgery.

Summary of background data. Survival prognosis is important when deciding about treatment of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression. The criteria for identifying prostate cancer patients who may benefit from surgical treatment are unclear.

Patients and methods The study comprised 68 consecutive patients with prostate cancer operated for metastatic spinal cord compression at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. The indication for surgery was neurological deficit; 53 patients had hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and 15 patients had previously untreated, hormone-naïve prostate cancer. In 42 patients posterior decompression was performed and 26 patients were operated with posterior decompression and stabilization.

Results A new score for prediction of survival was developed based on the results of survival analyses. The score includes: hormone status of prostate cancer, Karnofsky performance status, evidence of visceral metastasis, and preoperative serum PSA. The total scores ranged from 0 to 6. Three prognostic groups were formulated: group A (n = 32) with scores 0-1; group B (n = 23) with scores 2-4, and group C (n = 12) with scores 5-6. The median overall survival was 3 (0.3 - 20) months in group A, 16 (1.8 - 59) months in group B, and in group C more than half (7 of 12) of patients were still alive.

Conclusion We present a new prognostic score for predicting survival of prostate cancer patients after surgery for metastatic spinal cord compression. The score is easy to apply in clinical practice and may be used as additional support when making decision about treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 37, no 26, 2168-2176 p.
Keyword [en]
prostate cancer, bone metastasis, spinal cord compression, prognostic score
National Category
Orthopedics Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Orthopaedics; Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54459DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31826011bcOAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-54459DiVA: diva2:523863
Note

Originally included in thesis in submitted form.

Available from: 2012-04-27 Created: 2012-04-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer: clinical and morphological studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer: clinical and morphological studies
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Ryggmärgskompression vid metastaserande prostatacancer : kliniska och morfologiska studier
Abstract [en]

Background: Bone metastases occur in most patients with advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer causing pain, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. Few studies specifically address surgical treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in prostate cancer. Criteria for identifying patients who may benefit from surgery are poorly defined. Most of the current knowledge regarding tumor biology in prostate cancer is based on studies of primary tumors or soft tissue metastases. The mechanisms regulating growth of bone metastases are not fully established.

Aims: a) to evaluate outcome after surgery for MSCC in prostate cancer and to identify prognostic factors for survival and functional recovery; b) to evaluate current practice for referral of prostate cancer patients with MSCC; c) to analyze expression of androgen receptor (AR), cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in bone metastases with regard to survival after surgery for complications of bone metastases.

Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of 68 consecutive patients operated for metastatic spinal cord compression. Tumor tissue from bone metastases was obtained on spinal surgery (54 patients), fracture surgery (4 patients) and biopsy (2 patients), and analyzed by immunohistochemistry.

Results:

Study I: Mortality and complication rate after surgery was high. Patients with hormone-naïve disease and those with hormone-refractory disease with good performance status and without visceral metastases had more favorable survival. The ability to walk after surgery was related to better survival.

Study II: A new score for prognosis of survival after surgery for spinal cord compression includes: hormone status of prostate cancer, Karnofsky performance status, evidence of visceral metastasis, and preoperative serum PSA. The score is simple, tumor specific, and easy to apply in clinical practice.

Study III: Our results suggest that delays in diagnosis and treatment may have negative impact on functional outcome. Pretreatment ability to walk, hormone status of prostate cancer, and time from loss of ambulation influenced neurological recovery after surgery for spinal cord compression.

Study IV: High nuclear AR immunostaining in bone metastases and high preoperative serum PSA were associated with a poor outcome after metastasis surgery in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Short-term effect of castration therapy disclosed that nuclear AR immunostaining was decreased and apoptosis was increased, but cell proliferation remained largely unaffected.

Conclusion:  Prostate cancer patients with metastatic spinal cord compression represent a heterogeneous group. We identified prognostic factors for survival and functional outcome, which may help clinicians in making decisions about treatment. Our results also implicate the need for development of local and regional guidelines for treatment of patients with spinal cord compression, as well as the importance of information to patients at risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2012. 44 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1487
Keyword
prostate cancer, bone metastasis, spinal cord compression, surgical treatment, survival prognosis, early diagnosis, androgen receptor
National Category
Orthopedics Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Orthopaedics; Pathology; Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54461 (URN)978-91-7459-389-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-05-24, Sal B, Tandläkarhögskolan 9tr, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2012-04-27 Created: 2012-04-26 Last updated: 2012-05-25Bibliographically approved

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