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Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 7, 832-836 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700 °C and 400 °C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5 cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700 °C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400 °C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700 °C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe.

Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012. Vol. 88, no 7, 832-836 p.
Keyword [en]
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Quenching, Sub-zero cooling probe, Waste combustion
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54601DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.090OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-54601DiVA: diva2:524350
Note

Available online 28 April 2012

Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The relationship between fly ash chemistry and the thermal formation of polychlorinated pollutants during waste incineration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between fly ash chemistry and the thermal formation of polychlorinated pollutants during waste incineration
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thermal formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and naphthalenes (PCNs) is a major problem in waste incineration. Ideally, rather than relying on air cleaning systems and treatment techniques, their formation should be minimized or, if possible eliminated. The work presented in this thesis was conducted to obtain a deeper understanding of the thermal formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs during incineration using a 5 kW laboratory scale incinerator and two artificial wastes that were designed to reflect regional differences in waste composition.

The first part of the thesis focuses on the validation of a recently-developed flue-gas sampling probe with enhanced cooling capabilities. Artifact formation of PCDDs and PCDFs can occur during the sampling of hot flue gases if the cooling is insufficient. The new probe was successfully used to collect samples at 700 °C without biasing the measured POP levels. The thermal formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs in the post-combustion zone of the incinerator was then studied by collecting flue gas samples at 400 °C, 300 °C, and 200 °C during the incineration of the two artificial wastes. Highly chlorinated POPs were formed in larger quantities when burning the waste with the higher content of metals and chlorine, which suggests that high metal levels in the waste favor the chlorination of less chlorinated POPs or otherwise facilitate the formation of highly chlorinated polyaromatics, possibly via the condensation of highly chlorinated phenols. The concentrations of these pollutants and the abundance of highly chlorinated homologues increased as the flue gas cooled. Fly ash particles play an important role in thermal POP formation by providing essential elements (carbon, chlorine, etc.) and catalytic sites. The chemical and mineralogical properties of fly ash samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine their impact on thermal POP formation. Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) modeling was used to identify correlations between the observed POP distributions and the physicochemical data. This investigation provided new insights into the impact of fly ash chemistry on thermal POP formation.

In addition, the POP isomer distribution patterns generated during waste combustion were examined. These patterns are used to “fingerprint” mechanisms of POP formation. It was found that wastes containing large quantities of metals and chlorine favored the formation of highly chlorinated homologues including the very toxic 2,3,7,8-congeners. The data suggest that reducing fly ash emissions might increase the SO2 content of the flue gas and thereby suppress the Deacon process and the formation of harmful highly chlorinated aromatic species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 71 p.
Keyword
Incinerations, dioxins, PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, flue gas, fly ash, sampling, particle characterization, XPS, XRD, SEM/EDX, formation, chlorination, PCA, OPLS, OPLS-DA
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80186 (URN)978-91-7459-719-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-03, KBC-huset, KB3A9, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-13Bibliographically approved
2. Waste incineration residues: Persistent organic pollutants in flue gas and fly ash from waste incineration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste incineration residues: Persistent organic pollutants in flue gas and fly ash from waste incineration
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Organiska miljögifter i rökgas och flygaska från sopförbränning
Abstract [en]

Modern societies produce large quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW), which is commonly disposed of by incineration. This has several advantages: it reduces the waste’s volume and sterilizes it while also enabling energy recovery. However, MSW incineration has some notable disadvantages, the most widely debated of which is probably the production and release of persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), biphenyls (PCB) and naphthalenes (PCN). Of the 210 PCDF and PCDD congeners, 17 are toxic, with hormone-disrupting and carcinogenic properties. Twelve of the 209 PCB congeners and at least 2 of the 75 PCN also exhibit such properties. These POP form in the post-combustion zones of MSW incineration plants and are removed from the flue gas using filtering devices that trap them in the fly ash

This thesis concerns the formation and degradation of POP in processes related to MSW incineration. The first paper describes a case study in which PCDD were forming in filters designed to remove them from flue gases, causing emission-related issues in a full-scale MSW incineration plant. It was shown that the PCDD formation was probably due to chlorophenol condensation on the filters’ surfaces.

The second paper describes the validation of a cooling probe designed to prevent POP formation during high temperature (>450 °C) flue gas sampling. The results obtained also confirmed that PCDF and PCDD formation takes place at temperatures below 600 °C.

In the third paper, three different fly ashes were subjected to thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere in a rotary kiln and in sealed ampoules at 400 °C. The concentrations, degrees of chlorination and congener profiles of the POP in the treated ashes and emitted gases were compared to those for the untreated ashes. The trends observed for PCDF mirrored those for PCN, while the trends for PCDD closely resembled those for PCB. The PCDF congener profiles of the kiln ash were similar regardless of the initial ash composition, suggesting that the mechanisms of PCDF formation were similar in all cases.

The fourth paper describes the surface characterization of the three fly ashes studied in paper three by SEM, EDX, XPS and XRD. In addition, the thermal desorption and subsequent degradation of POP from the ashes was studied at temperatures of 300-900 °C. The composition of the gases released as the temperature increased differed between the ashes and depended on their composition. Doping experiments using isotopically labelled PCDF and PCDD suggests that PCDD desorbed at lower temperatures than PCDF.

This thesis examines several problems relating to POP formation during MSW incineration, from sampling to the ultimate fate of incineration residues. The results obtained illustrate the wide range of processes that contribute to thermal POP formation and degradation during and after MSW incineration.

Abstract [sv]

Förbränning av hushållssopor är en vanlig metod för att hantera ett växande avfallsproblem. Metoden har flera fördelar, såsom minskning av volym och vikt, sterilisering och energiåtervinning. Sopförbränning har dock vissa nackdelar och det mest debatterade är sannolikt utsläpp av persistenta organiska föroreningar (POPs) som polyklorerad dibensofuran (PCDF), dibenso-p-dioxin (PCDD), bifenyl (PCB) och naftalen (PCN). Det finns totalt 210 PCDF- och PCDD- kongener, med mellan ett till åtta klor på kolskelettet, varav 17 är giftiga med hormonstörande och cancerframkallande egenskaper. Även tolv av totalt 209 PCB-kongener samt minst två av totalt 75 PCN-kongener uppvisar liknande egenskaper. Dessa klorerade organiska föroreningar bildas då rökgaserna kyls ner i sopförbränningsanläggningarna och avlägsnas från rökgaserna med hjälp av filter och hamnar i flygaskan. Denna avhandling handlar om bildning och nedbrytning av POPs i sopförbränningsrelaterade processer.

 

Den första artikeln är en fallstudie där PCDD bildas i filtren i en fullskalig sopförbränningsanläggning. Bildningen ledde till förhöjda halter organiska föroreningar i rökgaserna, vilket ledde till ökade utsläpp. Den funna bildningsvägen för PCDD i filtren befanns sannolikt bero på kondensation av klorfenoler på filterytorna.

Den andra artikeln är en valideringsstudie av en kylprob avsedd att användas vid rökgasprovtagning vid hög temperatur (> 450 °C) för att undvika bildning av POPs under provtagningen. Studien bekräftade att majoriteten av PCDF- och PCDD- bildning i rökgaser från sopförbränning sker vid temperaturer under 600 °C.

I den tredje artikeln berättas om behandling av tre olika flygaskor från olika sopförbränningsanläggningar. Askorna behandlades vid 400 °C i inert atmosfär i både en roterugn och i förseglade ampuller. De resulterande koncentrationerna, kloreringsgraderna och kongenprofilerna av de organiska föroreningarna jämfördes. Likheter hittades mellan PCDF och PCN, medan PCDD och PCB betedde sig på ett annat sätt. Studien fann också att PCDF kongenprofiler i aska som behandlats i roterugnen liknade varandra, oberoende av askornas sammansättning, vilket tyder på en liknande bildningsväg.

För den fjärde artikeln, genomfördes ytkarakterisering (SEM, EDX, XPS och XRD) på de tre flygaskorna från artikel tre som sedan hettades upp från 30 °C till 900 °C i vacuum. Det som frigjordes på grund av uppvärmningen samt nedbrytningsprodukter från askorna studerades med hjälp av masspektrometri och infraröd spektroskopi. Studien fann att de gaser som frigjordes när temperaturen ökade skilde mellan askorna, beroende på deras sammansättning. Studien fann också att när aska dopad med isotopmärkt PCDF och PCDD utsattes för samma behandling, frigjordes PCDD vid lägre temperatur än PCDF.

Denna avhandling berör flera aspekter av problematiken kring klorerade organiska föroreningar som bildas vid sopförbränning, från provtagning till hur man ska hantera flygaskan. Avhandlingen belyser även olika typer av bildning och nedbrytning av POPs i varma processer kopplade till sopförbränning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2014. 75 p.
Keyword
MSW, PCDD, PCDF, PCN, PCB, POP, formation, degradation, case study, flue gas sampling thermal treatment, fly ash, surface characterization
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92765 (URN)978-91-7601-113-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-26, Umeå universitet, KBC-huset, KB3B1, Linneaus väg 6, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-03 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved

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