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Chemical emissions from building structures: emission sources and their impact on indoor air
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Kemiska emissioner från byggnadskonstruktioner : källor till emissioner och deras påverkan på inomhusluften (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Chemical compounds in indoor air can adversely affect our comfort and health. However, in most cases there is only a limited amount of information available that can be used to assess their health risk. Instead the precautionary principle is often applied, i.e. efforts are made to ensure that the concentrations of pollutants are kept at a minimum when constructing new buildings or conducting renovations by using low-emitting building materials. Today, when investigating buildings in order to solve indoor air quality problems, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are sampled in the air within rooms. The chemical composition of indoor air is complex and there are many sources for the chemicals present. The potential for emissions from sources in hidden spaces such as wall cavities is poorly understood and little information exists on the toxic potential of chemical releases resulting from moisture-related degradation of building materials. Most of the non-reactive VOCs that have been detected in indoor air in field studies and from building products are not believed to cause health problems. However, reactive compounds and chemical reaction products have the potential to negatively influence our comfort and health even at low concentrations. Even though the impact of chemical compounds on health is unclear in many cases, they can be used to identify technical problems in buildings. When a building is investigated, the air inside building structures could be sampled. This method would eliminate emissions from sources other than the construction materials and the samples would contain higher levels of individual compounds.

The aims of this work was to identify emissions profiles for different types of building structures, to see if the emission profiles for moisture damaged and undamaged structures differed, and to determine whether any of the emissions profiles for specific structures also could be found in indoor air.

Technical investigations and VOC sampling were performed in 21 different buildings with and without previous moisture damage. Seven of the buildings were investigated in the years 2005-2006 (study 1) and fourteen in the years 2009-2010 (study 2). In study 1, sixty samples were analyzed by PCA at the chemical group level (18 chemical groups, i.e. aldehydes, ketones etc). 41 % of all identified chemical compounds belonged to the hydrocarbon chemical group. The second largest chemical groups, each of which accounted for 5-10 % of all identified compounds, were alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and terpenes. The results indicated that one of the main factors that determined the emissions profile of a building structure was the materials used in its construction. Notably, concrete and wooden structures were found to have different emissions profiles.

The sum of VOC (TVOC) concentrations for all 241 samples from both study 1 and study 2 was used to compare total emissions between different building elements (ground and higher floors, external walls and roof spaces). Most building elements exhibited relatively low emissions compared to concrete ground floors, which generally had higher TVOC emissions. Emissions from both polystyrene insulation and PVC flooring could be identified in concrete ground floors and were the main cause for the higher emissions found in these structures. Profiles for wood preservatives such as creosote and pentachlorophenol were also identified in external walls. The emission profiles found in the structures could not be identified in the indoor air in the adjacent rooms, although individual compounds were sometimes detected at low concentrations.

Our results showed that the main factors influencing emissions in building structures were the construction materials and the nature of the building element in question. Because of difficulties with finding active water damage at the times of sampling and because of sampling inside closed building structures with old dried-out moisture damages, the field method used in this work was unsuitable for identifying differences in emission profiles between moisture damaged and undamaged structures. It will thus be necessary to investigate this difference in a laboratory where the precise composition of all tested structures is known, a range of RH values can be tested and the accumulation of emissions can be followed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2012. , 36 p.
Keyword [en]
indoor air quality, VOC, building structures, emissions, health effects, moisture damage, PCA, OPLS
Keyword [sv]
inomhusluft, VOC, konstruktioner, emissioner, hälsoeffekter, byggnadsmaterial, fuktskada, PCA, OPLS
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-55196ISBN: 978-91-7459-433-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-55196DiVA: diva2:526301
Presentation
2012-06-01, Samverkanshuset, Triple Helix, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Projects
Kompetenscentrum Byggnad - Luftkvalitet - Hälsa 2 (KLUCK 2)
Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2012-06-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Patterns of volatile organic compound emissions in building structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of volatile organic compound emissions in building structures
2012 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 21, no 5, 651-662 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new method for detecting hidden moisture damage was tested in a pilot study. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled from within different building structures and the emission profiles were compared using principal component analysis (PCA). When all 60 samples were examined at the chemical group level (i.e. aldehydes, ketones, etc.), the samples separated into two major groups, representing concrete and wooden structures. Alcohols, terpenes, ketones, hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a group of unidentified compounds were more strongly associated with structures in which the predominant construction material was concrete, than in structures mainly made of wood. For the 20 samples from wooden structures, 8 chemical groups were more abundant in those sampled in moisture-damaged buildings than in those sampled in the building with no known damage. These were terpenes, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, furans, PAH and carboxylic acids. Emissions from moisture-damaged concrete structures were higher than from wooden ones but more chemical groups were emitted from moisture-damaged wooden structures. The results indicate that sampling and analyses of VOCs inside building structures, and using PCA for data analysis, are useful for finding chemical fingerprints for moisture damages but more data are needed to substantiate this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, England: Sage Publications, 2012
Keyword
Building structures, Construction material, missions, Moisture damage, principal component, analysis, Volatile organic compounds
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50827 (URN)10.1177/1420326X11429835 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-12-27 Created: 2011-12-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Volatile organic compounds in building structures and their impact on indoor air
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volatile organic compounds in building structures and their impact on indoor air
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A common approach when investigating indoor air problems is sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air within rooms. The chemical composition of indoor air is complex and there are many sources of the chemicals present. Measurements of emissions from building materials are commonly collected only from surface materials when estimating the effects of building structures on indoor air quality. The potential for exposure from sources in hidden spaces such as wall cavities is poorly understood and little information exists on the toxic potential of chemical releases resulting from the moisture-related degradation of building materials. While their impact on health is often unclear, VOCs can be used to indicate technical problems in buildings. Sampling the air inside building structures should exclude emissions from other sources, leaving only those from the construction materials. The aims of this study were to find important emissions profiles in different types of building structures and to determine whether the same profiles were also present in indoor air. The emissions profiles for different building structures were compared using multivariate data analysis techniques, and influential and significant chemical compounds were identified. Emissions profiles typical for PVC flooring, polystyrene insulations and wood preservatives were identified. The specific profiles found in the structures could not be found in indoor air, although small amounts of individual compounds were sometimes found. The combination of sampling inside building structures and data analysis using multivariate methods gave us more information about materials and VOCs present in building structures than could have been obtained using traditional indoor air measurements. This method therefore facilitates technical investigations in problem buildings and aids in locating and removing emission sources with suspected effects on occupant health.

National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-55204 (URN)
Projects
Kompetenscentrum Byggnad - Luftkvalitet - Hälsa 2 (KLUCK 2)
Available from: 2012-05-11 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved

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Glader, Annika

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