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Total hip replacement versus open reduction and internal fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures: a randomized long-term follow-up study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
Danderyds sjukhus.
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume, ISSN 0021-9355, E-ISSN 1535-1386, Vol. 94, no 21, 1921-1928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Clinical trials with short and intermediate-term follow-up have demonstrated superior results for total hip replacement as compared with internal fixation with regard to hip function and the need for secondary surgery in elderly patients with a displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of total hip replacement with those of internal fixation over a long-term follow-up period of seventeen years.

Methods: We enrolled 100 patients who had sustained a femoral neck fracture in a single-center, randomized controlled trial; all patients had had a healthy hip before the injury. The study group included seventy-nine women and twenty-one men with a mean age of seventy-eight years (range, sixty-five to ninety years). The subjects were randomly assigned to either total hip replacement (the arthroplasty group) (n = 43) or internal fixation (the control group) (n = 57). The primary end point was hip function, evaluated with use of the Harris hip score. Secondary end points included mortality, reoperations, gait speed, and activities of daily life. Follow-up evaluations were performed at threemonths and at one, two, four, eleven, and seventeen years.

Results: The Harris hip score was higher in the total hip arthroplasty group, with a mean difference of 14.7 points (95% confidence interval, 9.2 to 20.1 points; p < 0.001 [analysis of covariance]) during the study period. We found no difference in mortality between the two groups. Four patients (9%) in the total hip replacement group and twenty-two patients (39%) in the internal fixation group had undergone a major reoperation (relative risk, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.64). The overall reoperation rate was 23% (ten of forty-three) in the total hip replacement group and 53% (thirty of fifty-seven) in the internal fixation group (relative risk, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.80). The results related to gait speed and activities of daily living favored the arthroplasty group during the first year.

Conclusions: Over a period of seventeen years in a group of healthy, elderly patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, total hip replacement provided better hip function and significantly fewer reoperations compared with internal fixation without increasing mortality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 2012. Vol. 94, no 21, 1921-1928 p.
Keyword [en]
controlled trial, arthroplasty, femur, index, hemiarthroplasty, dislocation, arthritis, register, alloy, score
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60112DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01615ISI: 000310761400001OAI: diva2:557897
Available from: 2012-10-01 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2015-09-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects on treatment of femoral neck fractures: studies on treatment methods, surgical approach and external validity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects on treatment of femoral neck fractures: studies on treatment methods, surgical approach and external validity
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Aspekter på behandling av lårbensfrakturer
Abstract [en]

Femoral neck fracture (FNF) is a great challenge for today´s health care and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly.  In the short term several studies in the literature have demonstrated improved hip function, quality of life and fewer re-operations in elderly patients treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) instead of internal fixation (IF). There are few reports on the long-term outcome comparing IF and THA. The vast majority of orthopaedic departments in Sweden use the direct lateral (DL) or posteriolateral (PL) approaches for hip arthroplasty. The PL approach has been linked to an increased risk of dislocation of the prosthesis and a higher rate of revision surgery in comparison to the DL approach. There are few reports focusing on radiological risk factors for prosthetic dislocation and patient reported hip function comparing the two surgical approaches for hip arthroplasty in FNF.

The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the gold standard for evaluating medical or surgical interventions. An RCT of high quality has to be internally and externally valid. Internal validity refers to a correct study design to avoid bias skewing the results. External validity (EV) refers to whether the results will be clinically relevant to a definable group of patients and can be extrapolated to the general health care situation. There are only a few reports in the orthopaedic literature focusing on the EV of published studies and none in the field of hip fractures.

Study I: This is a RCT of 100 patients with a displaced FNF comparing THA and IF. Follow-up evaluations were performed at three months and 1, 2, 4, 11 and 17 years. It was found that the Harris hip score (HHS) was higher and the rate of reoperations lower for patients treated with THA.

Study II: This is a prospective cohort study of 185 hips, comparing the DL and the PL approaches in patients treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA) for a displaced FNF. Follow-up was after 1 year. There was no difference in patient reported outcome between the groups measured with the HHS and WOMAC index. The PL approach resulted in a higher re-operation rate while the DL approach in a higher incidence of limping.

Study III: This is a retrospective cohort study of 373 patients with a cemented bipolar HA using a PL approach for a FNF with a follow-up ranging from 6 months to 7 years. Radiographs and all surgical records were reviewed regarding femoral offset (FO), leg length discrepancy (LLD) and Wiberg angle. Patients with recurrent dislocations had a decreased postoperative FO, LLD and shallower acetabulum on the operated side compared with their controls.

Study IV: This is a prospective cohort study of 840 hips comparing patients included in a RCT with those that did not give their informed consent (NC) or did not fulfill the criteria for participating in the trial (MS). Patients in the NC and MS groups had an increased mortality rate in comparison to those included in the study. We did not find any differences in hip function between these groups.

The main conclusions of this thesis are:

  • Healthy and lucid elderly patients with good hip function preoperatively, should be treated with THA for a displaced FNF.
  • The DL approach is favourable in treating displaced FNF with HA due to its decreased risk of reoperation but with an identical hip function outcome as the PL approach.
  • Care should be taken to restore the LLD and FO otherwise this may increase the risk of recurrent dislocation of a HA.
  • Our findings suggest that trial participants had a lower mortality rate than non-participants but the functional outcome of non-participants appeared to be satisfactory. This is important to take into consideration when extrapolating study results to a health care system.
Abstract [sv]

Lårbenshalsfrakturer (FNF) är en utmaning för dagens sjukvård och förknippad med hög mortalitet i den äldre befolkningen. FNF orsakas främst av lågenergitrauma efter fall i samma plan hos patienter med benskörhet. Total höftledsprotes (THA) har visat sig ge en bättre höftfunktion, livskvalitet med färre omoperationer hos äldre patienter än sluten reposition samt fixering med skruvar (IF) under de första två-fyra åren efter operation. Få studier har publicerats med långtidsuppföljning av THA jämfört med IF.

Vid behandling av felställd FNF med halv höftledsplastik (HA) eller THA finns olika kirurgiska metoder (snittföring) för implantation av protesen. Majoriteten av ortopedkliniker i Sverige använder direkt lateral (DL) eller posteriolateral (PL) snittföring. PL har kopplats till en ökad risk för luxation av protesen (urledsvridning), vilket i sin tur genererat en högre risk för omoperation jämfört med DL. Få studier har utvärderat höftfunktion med avseende på snittföring. Detsamma gäller vilka radiologiska faktorer som påverkar risken förprotesluxation. Det finns olika typer av studiedesigner för utvärdering av medicinska och kirurgiska behandlingsmetoder. Studiedesignen med högst bevisvärde anses vara den randomiserade kontrollerade studien (RCT). För att en RCT skall hålla hög kvalitet krävs intern och extern validitet. Intern validitet syftar på ett korrekt studieupplägg som mäter det som avses och undviker påverkan av icke önskvärda faktorer. Extern validitet (EV) innebär att erhållna resultat från studien är generaliserbara och kan extrapoleras till andra grupper än den studerade. Det inga rapporter i ortopediska litteraturen med fokus på EV med patienter som drabbats av FNF.

Studie I: Prospektiv randomiserad studie av 100 patienter med en felställd FNF jämförs THA med IF med avseende på höftfunktion och reoperationer. Uppföljning gjordes efter tre månader samt 1, 2, 4, 11 och 17 år. HHS som mått på höftfunktion var högre och andelen reoperationer lägre för patienter som behandlades med THA.

Studie II: Prospektiv kohortstudie med 183 patienter med felställd FNF behandlade med HA och antingen DL eller PL. Vi fann ingen skillnad i patientrapporterad höftfunktion utvärderat med HHS och WOMAC efter 1 år men en ökad förekomst av hälta vid DL.

Studie III: Retrospektiv kohortstudie av 373 patienter opererade med en cementerad bipolär HA och PL. Postoperativa röntgenbilder granskades avseende femoral offset (FO), postoperativ benlägdsskillnad (LLD) samt acetabulär Wibergvinkel och relaterades till återkommande protesluxationer. Detta relaterades till återkommande luxationer. Uppföljningstiden varierade mellan 6 månader och 7 år. Patienter med återkommande luxationer hade en minskad postoperativ global FO, förkortad LLD och grundare acetabulum på den opererade sidan jämfört med kontroller.

Studie IV: Prospektiv kohortstudie av 840 patienter med felställd FNF där patienter som ingick i en RCT jämförs med de som inte gav sitt samtycke för deltagande eller ej inkluderats i screeningprocessen. De patienterna som inte gav sitt samtycke hade ökad dödlighet, men ingen skillnad i höftfunktion jämfört med deltagare.


• Friska och kognitivt vitala äldre patienter med god höftfunktion innan en felställd lårbenshalsfraktur bör behandlas med total höftledsprotes.

• DLsnittföring ger ett lika bra patientrapporterad höftfunktion men en ökad förekomst av hälta jämfört med PL snitt vid behandling med halvprotes på grund av en felställd lårbenshalsfraktur.

• Ansträngning bör göras för att återställa benlängdsskillnad samtfemoral offset och därigenom minska risken för återkommande luxation.

• Våra resultat tyder på att patienter som deltar i en randomiserad studie har lägre dödlighet än patienter som avböjt att delta samt de som missats i screeningprocessen. Det är viktigt att ta hänsyn till när extrapolerar studieresultat till ett hälso-och sjukvårdssystem. Detta bör vägas in i värderingen av studieresultatens externa validitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2015. 97 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1737
Hip fracture, femoral neck fracture, treatment, total hip arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty, internal fixation, surgical approach, outcome, dislocation, femoral offset, leg length discrepancy, external validity
National Category
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108269 (URN)978-91-7601-305-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-09, Aulan, Länssjukhuset Sundsvall-Härnösand, Lasarettsvägen 21, 856 43, Sundsvall, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2015-10-13Bibliographically approved

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