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Social support, coping, and self-esteem in relation to psychosocial factors: A study of health issues and birth weight in young mothers in Tehran, Iran
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Generally, pregnancy is considered to be a positive period in life in Iranian culture. For the parents, it is important to have a healthy pregnancy and, as a result, a healthy child. A sufficient birth weight of the infant represents one of the crucial conditions of a healthy development of a child during infancy as well as later in life. Ongoing research has been carried out regarding various medical factors related to birth weight, but there is a gap in knowledge about psychosocial factors such as social support, coping, self-esteem, stress and mother’s mental health, and various socio-demographic factors including domestic violence, which may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. This thesis aims to provide knowledge to fill this gap.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Tehran, Iran, including 600 young mothers who had delivered in Akbarabadi hospital, one of the main gynaecological hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The investigation included a self-developed socio-demographic form, the Social Support Questionnaire, the Ways of Coping Checklist, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and a Life Event Checklist.

Results: We could not find a significant association between birth weight and mother’s level of education, and there was no substantial relationship between general mental health and birth weight. Verbal abuse was reported by 26.0% of the young mothers, 4.8% reported physical abuse, 5.5% reported sexual abuse, and 1.3% reported all three types of abuse. The abuse-index was significantly negatively associated with satisfaction with social support and with self-esteem.

The higher the abuse-index, by trend, the lower was the infants’ birth weight. Weight before pregnancy, current weight, weight gain during pregnancy, and the number of prenatal care visits were significantly positively associated with the weight of the newborn. Mothers who reported having a history of a low birth-weight (LBW) child or were physically abused during pregnancy had infants with significant lower birth weight.

The more the pregnant women were satisfied with their social support and the more often they used positive reappraisal as a way of coping, the higher was their infants’ birth weight. The higher the self-esteem, the less often they used escape avoidance and confrontive coping.

Conclusion: The results suggest the importance of relationships between a healthy pregnancy and psychosocial as well as socio-demographic factors. Providing pregnant women with social support is a key component for a healthy pregnancy, especially when faced with stressful situations. The number of people available for support did not provide a significant buffering effect on domestic violence (DV), but the perceived quality of social support did. Higher education in the mother and husband, and women’s employment represented protective conditions against the occurrence of DV. Women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2012. , 47 p.
Series
Studier i socialt arbete vid Umeå universitet : avhandlings- och skriftserie, ISSN 0283-300X ; 75
Keyword [en]
Pregnant women, Coping, Social support, Mental health, Stress, Self-esteem, Socio-demographic, Iran
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61402ISBN: 978-91-7459-502-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-61402DiVA: diva2:567373
Public defence
2012-12-14, Samhällsvetarhuset, Samvetet, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2012-11-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Farsi version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Farsi version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ)
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(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-47775 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2012-11-13
2.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
3. Relationships between life events, coping, social support and self-esteem in young Iranian mothers, Tehran
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between life events, coping, social support and self-esteem in young Iranian mothers, Tehran
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60179 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2012-11-13Bibliographically approved
4. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 7, 602-608 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013
Keyword
Pregnant Iranian women, domestic violence, social support, mental health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60178 (URN)10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182982b1d (DOI)000330371300011 ()
Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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