Sex-differences in symptoms, disability, and life satisfaction three years after mild traumatic brain injury: a population-based cohort study
2013 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 45, no 8, 749-757 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVE: To investigate sex differences in symptoms, structure of symptoms, disability and life satisfaction 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury. Secondary aims were to find risk factors for adverse outcome.
DESIGN: Population-based cohort study.Patients: The cohort comprised 137,000 inhabitants at risk in a defined population served by a single hospital in northern Sweden. Patients attending the emergency department following a mild traumatic brain injury in 2001 were included.
METHODS: Of 214 patients aged 18–64 years, 163 answered a questionnaire on symptoms, disability, and life-satisfaction 3 years post-injury. The instruments were analysed with descriptive statistics. A principal component analysis of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire was conducted. Risk factors were identified using logistic regression.
RESULTS: Post-concussion syndrome was found in 50% of the women and 30% of the men. Disability was found in 52% of the women and 37% of the men, and 57% of the women and 56% of the men were satisfied with their lives. For both genders, high frequency of symptoms was a risk factor for disability and low life satisfaction. Back pain was a risk factor for disability. Living alone was a risk factor for low levels of life satisfaction. The principal component analysis revealed differences between the sexes.
CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in outcome 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury. Women and men should be analysed separately.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stiftelsen Rehabiliteringsinformation , 2013. Vol. 45, no 8, 749-757 p.
traumatic brain injury, minor head injury, sex differences, post-concussion syndrome, follow-up studies, quality of life, principal component analysis, odds ratio
Research subject Rehabilitation Medicine
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61422DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1215ISI: 000326357500009PubMedID: 24002310OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-61422DiVA: diva2:567577