Environmental occurrence of emerging and legacy brominated flame retardants near suspected sources in Norway
2013 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, 307-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The environmental occurrence of potentially emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was investigated near suspected source zones in Norway, within seepage water, sewage waste water, sewage sludges, and sediments. Analyzed emerging BFRs included 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), ethylene bis(tetrabromophthalimide) (EBTPI), tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether (TBBPA AE), and tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dipropyl ether) (TBBPA DBPE). In addition selected polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, so that findings could be compared to legacy BFRs. An analytical method based on liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analysis of EBTPI, TBBPA AE, and TBBPA DBPE. The legacy BFRs were in general found in higher levels and abundances than the studied emerging BFRs. However, BTBPE was detected in most of the studied matrices (sewage sludge, seepage water and sediment). DBDPE was detected in sewage sludge, waste water, seepage water and in sediment taken close to a combined metal recycling and car dismantling site. TBECH was found in seepage water, waste water and sewage sludge. EBTPI was identified in one seepage water sample; TBBPA AE was detected both in seepage water and sediment, and TBPPA DBPE in waste water and seepage water. Of the emerging BFRs, the highest levels in water samples were quantified for TBBPA DBPE (81ng/L, seepage water from a combined metal recycling and car dismantling site) and in sediment for BTBPE (6.5ng/g, taken close to landfill). The findings of current-use BFRs in seepage water, sediment and in sewage suggest that further investigations are needed of the environmental fate and effects of these flame retardants.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 443, 307-314 p.
LC–-APPI–-MS/MS, Physical–chemical properties, Brominated diphenylether, Ethylene bis(tetrabromophthalimide), 1, 2-Dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane, Tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-62028DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.081PubMedID: 23201697OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-62028DiVA: diva2:574150