Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–1990
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3293-2318
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, 6-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 85, 6-19 p.
Keyword [en]
Industrial pollution control, Performance standards, Technology adoption, Innovation
National Category
Economic History Social Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-62884DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.10.007OAI: diva2:579189
Available from: 2012-12-19 Created: 2012-12-19 Last updated: 2015-03-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergquist, Ann-KristinLindmark, Magnus
By organisation
Economic history
In the same journal
Ecological Economics
Economic HistorySocial Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 111 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link