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An increase in risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a comparison of two cross-sectional surveys
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Division, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. (Umeå Center for Global Health Research)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. (Umeå Center for Global Health Research)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3025-2690
2015 (English)In: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, ISSN 0125-1562, Vol. 46, no 4, 775-785 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to describe changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a five year period in urban Indonesia. In 2004 (n=3,205) and 2009 (n=2,467) we conducted cross-sectional surveys of residents in Yogjakarta City, Indonesia evaluating risk factors for CVD. Smoking habits, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, blood pressure, weight, and height were recorded. The results of these 2 surveys conducted 5 years apart were then compared. The risk for having a CVD event was also calculated. Behavioral CVD risk factors were more common among men. The predicted risk of having a CVD event increased from 8.4% to 11.3% among men between 2004 and 2009. Effective measures need to be taken to change these behaviors among men in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization , 2015. Vol. 46, no 4, 775-785 p.
Keyword [en]
non-communicable diseases, chronic diseases, smoking, risk factor, Indonesia
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64076ISI: 000358186000026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-64076DiVA: diva2:587477
Note

Originally included in thesis in submitted form with the title: "The increasing risk factors of CVD in Yogyakarta, Indonesia : a result from two cross-sectional surveys"

Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Working with community: exploring community empowerment to support non-communicable disease prevention in a middle-incom country
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working with community: exploring community empowerment to support non-communicable disease prevention in a middle-incom country
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Non communicable diseases (NCD) are recognized as a major burden of human health globally, especially in low and middle-income countries including Indonesia. This thesis addresses a community intervention program utilizing a community empowerment approach to study whether this is a reasonable strategy to control NCD.

Objective: To explore possible opportunities, common pitfalls, and barriers in the process of developing a pilot community intervention program to prevent NCD in an urban area of a middle-income country.

Methods: The study was conducted in Yogyakarta Municipality. The baseline risk factor survey in 2004 (n=3205) describes the pattern of NCD risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake) and demographic characteristics using STEPwise instrument. A qualitative study was conducted in order to illustrate peoples’ perceptions about NCD risk factors and how NCD might be prevented. A pilot intervention was developed based on the baseline survey and the qualitative data. The pilot intervention was conducted in four intervention communities while one community served as the referent area. The intervention was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Finally, a second cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 (n= 2467) to measure NCD risk factor changes during the five year period.

Results: Baseline qualitative data showed that people in the high SES (Socio Economic Status) group preferred individual activities, whereas people in the low SES group preferred collective activities. Baseline survey data showed that the prevalence of all NCD risk factors were high. The community intervention was designed to promote passive smoking protection, promote healthy diet and physical activity, improve people’s knowledge of NCD, and provide a supporting environment. A mutual understanding between the Proriva team and community leadership was bargained. Several interactive group discussions were performed to increase NCD awareness. A working team was assigned to set goals and develop programs, and the programs were delivered to the community. There were more frequent activities and higher participation rates in the low SES group than in high SES group. The repeated cross-sectional surveys showed that the percentage of men predicted to be at high risk of getting an NCD event had significantly increased in 2009 compared to 2004.

Conclusion: The community empowerment model was a feasible choice as a “moderate”strategy to accommodate with people’s need when implementing a community intervention that also interacts with the service provided by the existing health system. A community empowerment approach may improve program acceptance among the people.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 81 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1539
Keyword
NCD, cardiovascular disease, community intervention, prevention, community empowerment, middle-incom countries
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64181 (URN)978-91-7459-532-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-02-08, Sal 135, by 9A, Allmänmedicin, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2015-04-29Bibliographically approved

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