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Developing educational computer-assisted simulations: Exploring a new approach to researching learning in collaborative health care simulation contexts
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. (LICT, LiSE)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Health care education is developing and simulations, in different guises, are gaining increasing attention as a means of overcoming tensions between instructional models and educational objectives. The role of simulations is, however, yet to be fully defined and will be dependent on the actual impact simulations on educational practice. Research need to better understand this impact and contribute to developing simulation practices. There is, therefore, a strong need for research that can balance scientific stringency and practical utility. This presents a challenge in a field that is biased in favor of laboratory experiments where theoretical accounts are also rare. This thesis explores a new theoretical and methodological approach, as a means of meeting this challenge. It draws upon Rose Luckin's Ecology of Resources framework for redesigning learning contexts (2010) and it attempts to explore relations between learning context, learner interactions, and learning outcomes, in order to identify opportunities for the development of educational simulation practice. In researching different types of health care simulations in their own right, arguments have been made that it is necessary to strive for smaller and more useful generalizations. In response to this challenge, this thesis delineates one type of simulation context: collaborative educational computer-assisted simulation (ECAS) in health care education. After reviewing previous research on related topics, a model of this type of context has been developed. Based on this general model, the particular subfield of collaborative radiology in ECAS has been analyzed and researched. Four articles on this topic present empirical contributions that address different relations between context, learner interactions, and learning outcomes in collaborative radiology in ECAS. The first one explores how moving from a static tool to an ECAS changes what learners talk about, how they talk about it, and how they develop during training. The second one explores in more detail relations between the features of ECAS, the content of learner interactions, and the impact on learning. The third one explores how context design impacts peer interaction, and the fourth compares more and less successful groups in order to identify needs and opportunities for development of the learning context. The empirical data are used to discuss relations between learning context, learner interactions, and learning outcomes, and how collaborative scripts may be potentially useful in the development of collaborative ECAS in health care education. Such scripts could support for instance explicit dialogue about relations between context-dependent doing and subject-specific principles, thorough engagement with simulation feedback and inclusion of all simulations participants. A new path for health care simulation research is suggested, including a move beyond laboratory experiments towards dealing with the messiness of actual educational practice, a move beyond universal generalizations towards smaller-scale context considerate and more practically useful generalizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2013. , 140 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 103
Keyword [en]
education, computer simulation, collaboration, health care, context, design, ecology of resources.
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64296ISBN: 978-91-7459-555-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-64296DiVA: diva2:599877
Public defence
2013-02-15, Humanisthuset, Hörsal F, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Learning Radiology in Simulated Environments
Available from: 2013-01-25 Created: 2013-01-22 Last updated: 2013-02-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. How does collaborative 3D screen-based computer simulation training influence diagnostic skills of radiographic images and peer communication?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does collaborative 3D screen-based computer simulation training influence diagnostic skills of radiographic images and peer communication?
2012 (English)In: Contemporary Educational Technology, ISSN 1309-517X, Vol. 3, no 4, 293-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compares the influence of two learning conditions – a screen-based virtual reality radiology simulator and a conventional PowerPoint slide presentation – that teach radiographic interpretation to dental students working in small collaborative groups. The study focused on how the students communicated and how proficient they became at radiographic interpretation. The sample consisted of 36 participants – 20 women and 16 men – and used a pretest/posttest group design with the participants randomly assigned to either a simulation-training group (SIM) or conventional-training group (CON) with three students in each collaborative group. The proficiency tests administered before and after training assessed interpretations of spatial relations in radiographs using parallax. The training sessions were video-recorded. The results showed that SIM groups exhibited significant development between pretest and posttest results, whereas the CON groups did not. The collaboration in the CON groups involved inclusive peer discussions, thorough interpretations of the images, and extensive use of subject-specific terminology. The SIM group discussions were much more fragmented and included more action proposals based on their actions with the simulator. The different learning conditions produced different results with respect to acquiring understanding of radiographic principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskişehir, Turkey: Anadolu University, 2012
Keyword
Educational computer based simulations, Collaborative learning, Health care education, 3D Simulations, Peer communication
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61140 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-07 Created: 2012-11-06 Last updated: 2013-01-24Bibliographically approved
2. Collaborative learning with screen-based simulation in health care education: an empirical study of collaborative patterns and proficiency development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative learning with screen-based simulation in health care education: an empirical study of collaborative patterns and proficiency development
2011 (English)In: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, ISSN 0266-4909, E-ISSN 1365-2729, Vol. 27, no 5, 448-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article is about collaborative learning with educational computer-assisted simulation(ECAS) in health care education. Previous research on training with a radiological virtual reality simulator has indicated positive effects on learning when compared to a more conventional alternative. Drawing upon the field of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, we investigate collaborative patterns, their causes, and their implications for learning. We investigate why the extent of application of subject-specific terminology differs between simulation training and more conventional training. We also investigate how the student-simulator interaction affordances produce collaborative patterns and impact learning. Proficiency tests before and after training, observations during training, and interviews after training constitute the empirical foundation. Thirty-six dentistry students volunteered for participation. The results showed that not only the task but also the medium of feedback impacts the application of subject-specific terminology. However, no relation to proficiency development was revealed.We identified turn-taking as well as dominance patterns of student-simulator interaction but again found no relation to proficiency development. Further research may give us deeper insights into if and how these collaborative patterns, in other respects, impact collaborative learning with ECAS in health care education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Blackwell, 2011
Keyword
collaboration, computer, education, health care, learning, simulation
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-41114 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00407.x (DOI)
Projects
LRiSE, LiSE
Available from: 2011-03-18 Created: 2011-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Designing for learning in computer-assisted health care simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for learning in computer-assisted health care simulations
2012 (English)In: Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching / [ed] J.Ola Lindberg & Anders D. Olofsson, Hershey, PA: IGI Global , 2012, 167-192 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter is about designing for learning in educational computer-assisted simulations (ECAS) in health care education (HCE). This is an area in need of an informed educational framework for analysis and design, on a research level as well as on a practice level. Drawing upon the works of Luckin (2008, 2010), an Ecology of Resources framework is proposed, which, informed by experiences from the research field (Gaba, 2004; Issenberg et al., 2005), can support researchers as well as practitioners in analyzing and designing health care simulations. Using this framework, we will discuss original empirical data from two studies from the Learning Radiology in Simulated Environments project, and more specifically how changes in design, or adjustments to the Ecology of Resources, impact the simulation process. Data include video-recorded observations of collaborative simulation training, a student questionnaire directly after training and later follow-up interviews. We will illustrate the usefulness of the framework and point out some challenges and suggestions for future development and research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2012
Keyword
collaboration, computer, education, health care, learning, simulation, theory.
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-39430 (URN)10.4018/978-1-61350-080-4.ch010 (DOI)9781613500804 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2013-01-24Bibliographically approved
4. Exploring collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations in health care education: An empirical ecology of resources study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations in health care education: An empirical ecology of resources study
2012 (English)In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 3, no 6A, 784-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS) in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006), and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011). This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (Häll et al., 2011; Häll & Söderström, 2012), this paper pri- marily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010) and informed by computer-supported collabora- tive learning (CSCL) research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The dis- cussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009) to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.

Keyword
Collaborative Learning, Collaborative Scripts, Computer Simulation, Design, Dentistry Education, Ecology of Resources
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-63731 (URN)10.4236/ce.2012.326117 (DOI)
Projects
Learning Radiologi in Simulated Environments
Available from: 2013-01-05 Created: 2013-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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