2011 (English)In: A geographic guide to infectious diseases / [ed] Petersen E, Chen LH, Schlaugenhof P, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, 1, 218-229 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
The most common community-acquired infectious diseases are upper and lower respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infections. Among vector-borne infections, Borrelia dominate but tick-borne encephalitis is found in the Baltic countries and parts of Sweden and a few cases have been reported from Denmark. The most common cause of viral meningitis is enterovirus, and herpes virus is the most common cause of encephalitis. Bacterial meningitis is rare and the most common causes are pneumococci and meningococci type B. Hepatitis A is very rare but local outbreaks are described from single imported cases. Hepatitis B is often sexually transmitted and B and C are usually related to intravenous drug abuse. Gastroenteritis due to virus is seen and food-borne outbreaks are rare but seen regularly due to virus and especially Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. (Campylobacter, the most reported in Sweden.) The prevalence of HIV is below 1% in the population and all patients are offered free antiretroviral treatment. Infections related to immunosuppressed patients like transplant recipients and patients for other reasons receiving immunosuppressive treatment are increasing primarily due to an increasingly aging population. Tuberculosis is still common in the Baltic countries where MDR is also a problem. Parasitic infections are rare, but waterborne outbreaks of Giardia have been described from Norway and Sweden. In the Baltic countries Echinococcus multilocularis seems to be spreading and Trichinella infections from consumption of infected meat has been described.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2011, 1. 218-229 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64736ISBN: 9780470655290ISBN: 9781119971610OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-64736DiVA: diva2:602491