Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality
2014 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 470-471, 527-535 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Estimated emissions of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) and the two phthalate esters diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) to indoor air in Stockholm, Sweden were used to assess the contribution of chemical outflows from the indoor environment to urban outdoor air pollution for these substances, by applying the recently developed Stockholm MUltimedia URban fate (SMURF) model (Cousins, 2012). Emission rates of DEHP and DINP from PVC materials were measured and used as input to the model, as well as recently reported estimates of BDE 209 emissions to indoor air in Stockholm. Model predicted concentrations were compared to empirical monitoring data obtained from the literature and from additional measurements of phthalates in ventilation outlets and urban air performed in the current study. The predicted concentrations of the phthalates DEHP and DINP in indoor air and dust were within a factor of 1.8-8 of the measured concentrations, but indoor concentrations of BDE 209 were underpredicted by about a factor of 30. The outflow of DEHP and DINP from the indoor environment was shown to be negligible compared with the estimated amounts entering the city with inflowing air, whereas for BDE 209, releases from the indoor environment may correspond to about 30 % of the input via inflowing air, if the suggested understimation of emissions is taken into account. The study further shows that chemical removal from the indoor environment through various cleaning activities is more important for BDE 209 than for the phthalates, but that cleaning affects the concentration in dust for all three substances. Improved knowledge of indoor particle behaviour would reduce the uncertanity in the modeled concentration in indoor air and dust.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 470-471, 527-535 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-66362DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-66362DiVA: diva2:606215