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Women's experiences of dietary advice and dietary changesduring pregnancy
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth Obstet & Gynecol, SE-75105 Uppsala, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
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2013 (English)In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 29, no 9, 1027-1034 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: to describe women's experiences of dietary information and the change of dietary habits during pregnancy. DESIGN: a qualitative design was used. In 2007 we conducted six focus group interviews using open-ended questions. SETTINGS: five rural and city antenatal clinics in northern Sweden were included PARTICIPANTS: twenty-three women in mid-pregnancy participated in groups of three to seven FINDINGS: three domains were found 'Dietary information gain', 'Reactions to dietary information' and 'Dietary management'. The women had to discover dietary information by themselves, and only when health problems or symptoms occurred did they receive guidance from the midwife. Their reactions to the dietary information were 'being confused', 'feeling fear and guilt' and 'being monitored', summed up in 'being uncertain'. The diet was managed by 'checking food content', 'following bodily signals', 'using common sense', and 'making exceptions', summed up as 'being responsible but with a pinch of salt'. KEY CONCLUSIONS: the women expressed problems with dietary changes, but they could mostly manage them on their own. The pregnant women experienced that the midwives gave dietary information and advice first when problems arise. When struggling with diet, the women experienced confusion, and they had to seek information by themselves. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: sources of information about diet during pregnancy were experienced as inconsistent and contradictory. Midwives are important in motivation for healthy lifestyle during pregnancy and with sufficient dietary knowledge and counselling skills they can help pregnant women effect dietary changes by providing guidance and support in early pregnancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 29, no 9, 1027-1034 p.
Keyword [en]
Pregnancy; Dietary advice; Dietary changes; Quality methods
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-66838DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.09.005ISI: 000321744500002PubMedID: 23427852OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-66838DiVA: diva2:609425
Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pregnant women and midwives are not in tune with each other about dietary counseling: studies in Swedish antenatal care
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pregnant women and midwives are not in tune with each other about dietary counseling: studies in Swedish antenatal care
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background During pregnancy, a healthy diet is beneficial for the expecting mother and her fetus. Midwives in antenatal care have an ideal position for promoting a healthy diet and thereby help women to not only lower the risks of pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes, but improve maternal health. The overall aim of this thesis was to describe diet and dietary changes during pregnancy from the women’s and the midwives’ perspectives with a focus on dietary counseling. The thesis comprises four studies. The specific aims in the respective studies were to: I) Describe pregnant women’s attitudes to and experiences of dietary information and advice, as well as dietary management during pregnancy. II) Explore midwives’ strategies in challenging dietary counseling situations. III) Describe how midwives’ perceive their role and their significance in dietary counseling of pregnant women.  IV) Describe women’s food habits during pregnancy and up to six months postpartum.

Methods Studies I-III were qualitative. Study I included focus group interviews with 23 pregnant women. Study II included telephone interviews with 17 experienced midwives working in Swedish antenatal health care. Study III included the same 17 interviews from study II and supplemented them with four face-to-face-interviews. Qualitative content analysis was performed in all three studies. Study IV was a longitudinal study including a quantitative analysis of a questionnaire, which was given to women at five occasions during and after pregnancy. It concerned their food habits and it was answered by 163 women. The quantitative data was analyzed using comparative and descriptive statistics.

Results The overall findings of the thesis were summarized as the main theme “Pregnant women and midwives are not in tune with each other about dietary counseling”. The main theme included the two themes ‘Pregnant women are concerned about risks for their child but fail to change to healthier dietary habits over time’, and ‘Midwives view themselves as authorities, though questioned ones’. In subthemes it was highlighted that pregnant women are well informed and interested in risk reduction for their child’s best and that they try to do their best to improve their diet during pregnancy. However, their diet did not reach levels of healthy eating recommendations and became even unhealthier after pregnancy. It was also highlighted that midwives experienced insufficient knowledge in dietary issues and related risks and that they had difficulties to give dietary support to pregnant women. Midwives were found to mainly focus on giving information and they lacked sufficient competence for challenging counseling.

Conclusion Pregnant women, on the one hand, experience a lack of support from the midwives when dealing with dietary changes. The midwives, on the other hand, feel exposed and express a need for both further education in dietary issues and training in counseling. Women’s food habits during, but in particular after pregnancy need improvement, and dietary counseling could be more focused on healthy eating in a long-term perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. 114 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1745
Keyword
Pregnancy, food habits, dietary counseling, counseling strategies, woman-centred care, antenatal care, qualitative methods, longitudinal studies, food frequency questionnaire.
National Category
Family Medicine
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107691 (URN)978-91-7601-294-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-09-18, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Felaktigt ISSN angivet i avhandlingen och på spikbladet.

Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2015-08-27Bibliographically approved
2. Nutritional aspects of behaviour and biology during pregnancy and postpartum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutritional aspects of behaviour and biology during pregnancy and postpartum
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

A well-balanced nutritious diet is important for the pregnant woman and the growing fetus, as well as for their future health. Poor nutrition results from both over-consumption of energy-rich foods which can lead to a higher weight gain than is healthy and under-nutrition of essential nutrients. Food intake is regulated in complex biological systems by many factors, where steroid hormone is one factor involved.

The overall aim of this thesis is to describe dietary intake, vitamin D levels, dietary information and dietary changes, and to study the relation between allopregnanolone and weight gain during pregnancy and postpartum.

Methods

Study I was a qualitative study with focus group interviews with 23 pregnant women. The text was analysed with content analysis. Study II was a quantitative cross-sectional study conducted in early pregnancy (n=209) with a reference group (n=206). Self-reported dietary data from a questionnaire was analysed using descriptive comparative statistics and a cluster analysis model (Partial Least Squares modelling). Study III had a quantitative longitudinal design. Vitamin D concentrations were analysed in 184 women, collected on five occasions during pregnancy and postpartum. Descriptive comparative statistics and a linear mixed model were used. Study IV was a quantitative longitudinal study with 60 women. Concentrations of allopregnanolone were analysed in gestational week 12 and 35. Descriptive and comparative statistics as well as Spearman’s correlation (rho) were used to describe the relationship between weight gain and allopregnanolone concentrations.

 

Results

The focus group interviews showed that women wanted to know more about different foods to reduce any risk for their child but the information about foods was partly up to themselves to find out. They expressedfeelingsof insecurityand guiltif they accidentallyate something“forbidden”. The recommendationswere followedas best as possiblealong withcommon sense todeal with dietchanges. The main themes were “Finding out by oneself”, “Getting professional advice when health problems occur”, “Being uncertain” and “Being responsible with a pinch of salt”. Some differences in the dietary patterns were found among the pregnant women compared to references, with less, vegetables (47 g/day), potatoes/rice/pasta (31 g/day), meat/fish (24 g/day) and intake of alcohol and tobacco/snuff but a higher intake of supplements. Bothpregnant women and referenceshad intakes offolatethrough diet45% (pregnant) and 22% (references) lower than current recommendations(500vs400g/day). Vitamin Dintake was34% lower than the recommendationsof 10mg/day. At least a third of the participants had insufficient plasma levels below 50 nmol/L of vitamin D. Season was a strong factor influencing the longitudinal pattern. Gestational week, season, total energy intake, dietary intake of vitamin D, and multivitamin supplementation over the previous 14 days were factors related to vitamin D levels. A correlation betweenallopregnanoloneconcentrations ingestationalweek 35and weight gainin weeks12–35was seen (p = 0.016). Therewas alsoa correlation betweenthe increase inallopregnanolone(weeks12–35) andweight gain(see above) (p = 0.028).

 

Conclusions

Dietary recommendations were described as contradictory and confusing and the dietary advice felt inadequate. The women faced their diet changes and sought information on their own but would have wished for more extensive advice from the midwife. The intake of vitamins essential for pregnancy was lower than recommended, which is also confirmed by low plasma levels of vitamin D in at least one third of the pregnant women. Vitamin D levels peaked in late pregnancy. Aside from gestational week and season which were related to plasma levels, intake from foods and supplements also affected the levels. Reasons for weight gain are complex and depend on many factors. Allopregnanolone is a factor that was seen to relate to the weight gain of the studied pregnant women.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund

En välbalanserad näringsrik kost är viktig för den gravida kvinnan och det växande fostret, så även för deras framtida hälsa. En bristfällig kost kan utgöras av både överförbrukning av energirika livsmedel vilket kan leda till högre viktuppgång än vad som är hälsosamt och bristande intag av viktiga näringsämnen. Kostintag regleras av komplexa biologiska system där flera faktorer är inblandade däribland steroidhormonet allopregnanolon. Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att under och efter graviditet beskriva kostintag, vitamin D-nivåer, kostinformation och kostförändringar och att studera allopregnanolons relation till viktökning.

Metod

Studie I var en kvalitativ studie med fokusgruppsintervjuer med 23 gravida kvinnor. Texten analyserades med innehållsanalys. Studie II var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie som genomfördes i tidig graviditet (n = 209) och med en grupp icke-gravida kvinnor (kontrollgrupp) (n=206). Självrapporterade kostdata från ett frågeformulär analyserades med beskrivande, jämförande statistik och en klusteranalysmodell (Partial Least Squares modellering). Studie III hade en kvantitativ longitudinell design. Vitamin D-koncentrationer analyserades hos 184 kvinnor, vid fem tillfällen under graviditeten och efter förlossningen. Beskrivande, jämförande statistik och en linjär mixad regressionsmodell användes. Studie IV var en kvantitativ longitudinell studie med 60 kvinnor. Koncentrationerna av allopregnanolon analyserades vid graviditetsvecka 12 och 35. Beskrivande och jämförande statistik samt Spearman’s korrelation användes för att beskriva samband mellan viktökning och koncentrationer av allopregnanolon.

Resultat

Intervjuerna i studie I visade att kvinnor ville veta mer om olika typer av mat för att minska en eventuell risk för sina barn men kostinformation var delvis upp till dem själva att ta reda på. De VIII uttryckte känslor av osäkerhet och skuld om de råkat äta något ”förbjudet”. Rekommendationerna följdes så väl som möjligt, tillsammans med sunt förnuft för att hantera kostförändringar. Huvudteman var ”Söka information på egen hand”, ”Få professionell rådgivning när problem uppstår”, ”Känna sig osäker” och ”Ta ansvar med en nypa salt”. I studie II kunde man se vissa skillnader i kostmönster bland de gravida kvinnorna jämfört med kontrollgruppen: mindre intag av grönsaker (47 g/dag), potatis/ris/pasta (31 g/dag), kött/fisk (24 g/dag) och alkohol och tobak/snus och ett högre intag av kosttillskott. Både gravida kvinnor och kontrollgruppen hade lägre intag av folsyra via kosten med 45 % (gravida) och 22 % (kontrollgruppen) än de gällande rekommendationer som är (500 resp 400 g/dag). I studie III såg man att inta et av vitamin D var 34 % lägre än rekommendationen på 10 µg/dag. Minst en tredjedel av deltagarna hade otillräckliga plasma nivåer av vitamin D, under 50 nmol/L. Årstid var en stark faktor som påverkar det longitudinella mönstret. Graviditetsvecka, säsong, totala energiintaget, intaget av vitamin D och multivitamintillskott under de senaste 14 dagarna var faktorer som relaterade till Dvitaminnivåer. I studie IV sågs ett samband mellan allopregnanolon-koncentrationer vid graviditetsvecka 35 och viktökning från vecka 12 till 35 (p = 0,016). Det sågs också ett samband mellan ökningen av allopregnanolon (vecka 12–35) och viktökningen (se ovan) (p = 0,028).

Slutsatser

Kostrekommendationer beskrevs som motsägelsefulla och förvirrande och kostråden de fick uppfattades som otillräckliga. Kvinnorna tog itu med sina kostförändringar och sökte information på egen hand men hade önskat mer omfattande råd från barnmorskan. Intaget av vitaminer viktiga för graviditeten var lägre än rekommendationerna, vilket också bekräftas av låga plasmanivåer av D-vitamin hos cirka en tredjedel av de gravida kvinnorna. D-vitaminnivåerna nådde en topp i slutet av graviditeten. Graviditetsvecka och säsong på året påverkade D vitaminnivåer, så även intag via mat och kosttillskott. Orsakertill viktökning är komplexa och beror på många faktorer. Allopregnanolon är en faktor som sågs relatera till viktökningen hos de undersökta gravida kvinnorna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 85 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1771
Keyword
pregnancy, antenatal care, dietary advice, qualitative, dietary intake, cross-sectional, vitamin D levels, alloprenanolone, weight gain, longitudinal
National Category
Family Medicine Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Clinical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117427 (URN)978-91-7601-395-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-08, Sal 135, byggnad 9A bottenvåningen, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2016-03-07Bibliographically approved

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