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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in High School using Avatars in Virtual Worlds: An International Feasibility Study
Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. (Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden)
Innovat Learning Inc, Los Altos Hills, CA USA.
Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Surg, Div Clin Anat, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 15, no 1, doi-10.2196/jmir.1715 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today's youth (ie, the digital native generation). Objective: Our main aim was to assess the feasibility of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school students by using avatars in MMVM. We also analyzed experiences, self-efficacy, and concentration in response to training. Methods: In this prospective international collaborative study, an e-learning method was used with high school students in Sweden and the United States. A software game platform was modified for use as a serious game to train in emergency medical situations. Using MMVW technology, participants in teams of 3 were engaged in virtual-world scenarios to learn how to treat victims suffering cardiac arrest. Short debriefings were carried out after each scenario. A total of 36 high school students (Sweden, n=12; United States, n=24) participated. Their self-efficacy and concentration (task motivation) were assessed. An exit questionnaire was used to solicit experiences and attitudes toward this type of training. Among the Swedish students, a follow-up was carried out after 6 months. Depending on the distributions, t tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used. Correlation between variables was assessed by using Spearman rank correlation. Regression analyses were used for time-dependent variables. Results: The participants enjoyed the training and reported a self-perceived benefit as a consequence of training. The mean rating for self-efficacy increased from 5.8/7 (SD 0.72) to 6.5/7 (SD 0.57, P<.001). In the Swedish follow-up, it subsequently increased from 5.7/7 (SD 0.56) to 6.3/7 (SD 0.38, P=.006). In the Swedish group, the mean concentration value increased from 52.4/100 (SD 9.8) to 62.7/100 (SD 8.9, P=.05); in the US group, the concentration value increased from 70.8/100 (SD 7.9) to 82.5/100 (SD 4.7, P<.001). We found a significant positive correlation (P<.001) between self-efficacy and concentration scores. Overall, the participants were moderately or highly immersed and the software was easy to use. Conclusions: By using online MMVWs, team training in CPR is feasible and reliable for this international group of high school students (Sweden and United States). A high level of appreciation was reported among these adolescents and their self-efficacy increased significantly. The described training is a novel and interesting way to learn CPR teamwork, and in the future could be combined with psychomotor skills training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 15, no 1, doi-10.2196/jmir.1715 p.
Keyword [en]
Serious games, virtual learning environments, MMVW, avatars, students, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, patient simulation, self-efficacy, concentration
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67823DOI: 10.2196/jmir.1715ISI: 000315113200016OAI: diva2:614220
Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2014-01-10Bibliographically approved

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