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Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: en litteraturgranskning
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
1981 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Effects of practice and instruction on test performance : a literature review (English)
Abstract [sv]

I föreliggande litteraturgranskning ingår studier som har behandlat övnings- och instruktionseffekter på test. De studier som genomförts inom problemområdet är relativt många och varierar såväl i uppläggning som i innehåll och genomförande och därför har granskningen skett utifrån en speciell systematisering och avser i huvudsak enbart standardiserade test. Utgångspunkten har varit att de redoivsade studierna sorterats och analyserats under huvudrubrikerna övning och instruktion. Inom respektive rubrik har studierna sedan också sorterats enligt ett visst system som inneburit parallellitet och möjligheter till jämförelser inom och mellan betingelserna övning och instruktion. Studiernas design har utgjort den huvudsakliga struktureringsvariabeln och därutöver har struktureringen gjorts utifrån övnings- och instruktions-betingelsens varaktighet, vilken typ av test som utnyttjats, samt individkarakteristika. Det sistnämnda har inneburit att försökspersonernas ålder, kön, prestationsnivå och tidigare erfarenhet av test har innefattats. I den avslutande diskussionen, som innehåller en sammanfattande beskrivning av övnings- och instruktionseffekter på test, behandlas dels olika problem som är förknippade med genomförandet av en litteraturgranskning inom detta område,dels vilka slutsatser som kan dras utifrån existerande forskning inom området.

Abstract [en]

This review of literature includes studies that have dealt with effects of practice and instruction on tests. The studies that have been carried out within the problem area are fairly numerous and vary both with regard to design content and procedure. This has been taken into account in the systematization used in the review. Furthermore the review deals on the whole only with standardized tests. The systematization or structure which has been used means the starting-point has been that the reported studies have been classified and analyzed under the main headings practice and instruction. The studies have also, within each heading, been classified according to a certain system implying parallelism and possibilities of comparisons within and between practice and instruction. The design of the studies has been the main structuring variable and the structure has, in addition to that, been based on the permanence of practice and instruction, type of test used, and individual characteristics. The latter has meant that the subjects' age, sex performance level and earlier experience of tests has been included in the structure. The concluding discussion, including a description of the effects of practice and instruction on tests, deals with, on one hand, various problems associated with the procedure of a review of literature within this special problem area and, on the other, the conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of existing research within this field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1981. , 77 p.
Series
Pedagogiska rapporter Umeå, ISSN 0348-9388 ; 93
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67848OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-67848DiVA: diva2:614345
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: Några empiriska studier och analyser avseende övningens och instruktionens betydelse för testprestationen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekter av övning och instruktion på testprestation: Några empiriska studier och analyser avseende övningens och instruktionens betydelse för testprestationen
1981 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report consists of a compilation of a number of studies, which all of them have dealt with the effects of practice and instruction upon a person's test results. A literature review based on a dichotomy of practice and instruction under short-term and long-term conditions respectively, as well as on the denign of the investigations and certain characteristics of the individuals, resulted in general as well as in more specific statements on the arising of practice and instruction effects. In all the empirical investigations quantitative-numerical tests were used (KVR and NOG respectively), where one-of them (NOG) is a part of the so-called Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. The basic aim was to investigate if short-term practice (KTÖ) and short-term instruction (KTI) could have an effect upon the score of these tests. In this case practice was defined as taking a pre-test, and in the first three studies the instruction consisted of two phases: a first one concerning general testing strategies, and a second one concerning a specially adapted problem solving strategy. As a basis for the forming of this special problem solving strategy for NOG served a logically constructed and sequential problem solving strategy, which was formed as a direct influence on the individual via instruction in the first three studies, and as an indirect influence on the individual via the item format in the last three studies. From the achieved results can be mentioned that the literature paid attention to the importance of a person's knowledge of and familiarity with tests and examinations in a specific as well as in a more general sense. If a person has no or very little former experience of tests there is a certain probability that there will be a higher score due to KTÖ or KTI. This probability is reduced considerably if the person has some or relatively great former experience in this respect. This was also verified indirectly in the empirical studies, which were mainly carried out on individuals who could be classified as experienced in and familiar with tests. No practice or instruction effects could be found either in the first three studies or indirectly in the last three studies. In these ones a specially constructed item format had been used, which had been formed according to the sequential problem solving strategy. With the intention to obtain an interpretation frame for practice and instruction effects on tests, the basis in this report has been a theoretically constructed model, whereby the achieved effects are first of all related to the individual variable former experience, and secondly to whether a test consists of correctly or incorrectly constructed items.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 1981. 45 p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 14
Keyword
Practice, instruction, coaching, item format, test-taking behaviour, test-wiseness, validity
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16609 (URN)91-7174-074-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
1981-05-15, Humanisthuset, hörsal F, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15
Projects
digitalisering@umu
Available from: 2007-10-07 Created: 2007-10-07 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved

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