Menstrual Cycle and Respiratory Symptoms in a General Nordic-Baltic Population
2013 (English)In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 187, no 4, 366-373 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Rationale: There is little knowledge of variations in respiratory symptoms during the menstrual cycle in a general population, and potential modifying factors are not investigated. Objectives: To investigate menstrual cycle variation in respiratory symptoms in a large general population, using chronobiology methodology, and stratifying by body mass index (BMI), smoking, and asthma status. Methods: A total of 3,926 women with regular cycles less than or equal to 28 days and not taking exogenous sex hormones answered a postal questionnaire regarding the first day of their last menstruation and respiratory symptoms in the last 3 days. Moving 4-day means were computed to smooth uneven records of daily sampling; best-fitting 28-day composite cosine curves were applied to each time series to describe rhythmicity. Measurements and Main Results: Significant rhythmic variations over the menstrual cycle were found in each symptom for all subjects and subgroups. Wheezing was higher on cycle Days 10-22, with a midcycle dip near the time of putative ovulation (approximately Days 14-16)-in most subgroups. Shortness of breath was higher on days 7-21, with a dip just before midcycle in many subgroups. Cough was higher just after putative ovulation for subjects with asthma, BMI greater than or equal to 23 kg/m(2), and smokers, or just before ovulation and menses onset for low symptomatic subgroups. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms varied significantly during the menstrual cycle and were most frequent from the midluteal to mid-follicular stages, often with a dip near the time of ovulation. The patterns varied by BMI, smoking, and asthma status. These relations link respiratory symptoms with hormonal changes through the menstrual cycle and imply a potential for individualized chronotherapy for respiratory diseases.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 187, no 4, 366-373 p.
menstrual cycle, RHINE, respiratory symptoms, asthma, sex hormones
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-67391DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201206-1112OCISI: 000315075800007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-67391DiVA: diva2:615213