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Nutrient intake in adolescent girls and boys diagnosed with coeliac disease at an early age is mostly comparable to their non-coeliac contemporaries
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8944-2558
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-2021-0028-7401
Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Pediatrics in Norrköping, County Council of Östergötland, Norrköping, Sweden.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 27, no 1, 41-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Food habits, nutrient needs and intakes differ between males and females, although few nutritional studies on patients with coeliac disease (CD) have reported results stratified by gender.

OBJECTIVES: To compare energy and nutrient intakes among 13-year olds diagnosed with CD in early childhood with those of a non-coeliac (NC) age- and gender-matched control group, and also with estimated average requirements (EAR).

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Sweden 2006-2007 within the coeliac screening study ETICS (Exploring The Iceberg of Coeliacs in Sweden). Dietary intake was assessed among 37 adolescents (23 girls) diagnosed with CD at median age 1.7 years (CD group) and 805 (430 girls) NC controls (NC group) using a food-frequency questionnaire covering 4 weeks. Reported energy intake was validated by comparison with the calculated physical activity level (PAL).

RESULTS: Regardless of CD status, most adolescents reported an intake above EAR for most nutrients. However, both groups had a low intake of vitamin C, with 13% in the CD-group and 25% in the NC-group below EAR, and 21% of boys in the CD-group below EAR for thiamine. The intake of fatty acids was unbalanced, with a high intake of saturated and a low intake of unsaturated fats. Girls and boys in the CD-group had an overall lower nutrient density in reported food intake compared to girls and boys in the NC-group.

CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intake of adolescent girls and boys with CD was mostly comparable to intakes of NC controls. Dietitians should take the opportunity to reinforce a generally healthy diet when providing information about the gluten-free diet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014. Vol. 27, no 1, 41-53 p.
Keyword [en]
adolescents, dietary assessment, coeliac disease, gluten-free diet
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Gender Studies
Research subject
Food and Nutrition
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71406DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12125ISI: 000331176600004PubMedID: 23701396ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84893683278OAI: diva2:623715
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2005-0802Formas, 222-2004-1918Formas, 222-2007-1394Swedish Research Council, 521-2007-2953Swedish Research Council, 521-2004-7093EU, European Research Council, FP6-2005-FOOD-4B-36383–PREVENTCD
Available from: 2013-05-28 Created: 2013-05-28 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Is it the gluten-free diet that matters the most?: Food, gender and celiac disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is it the gluten-free diet that matters the most?: Food, gender and celiac disease
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The only treatment for celiac disease consists of excluding gluten. Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat, rye, and barley, which are cereals commonly used in bread, pasta, pizza, etc. The overall aims of this thesis were to study; what happens with food choices and nutrient intakes when individuals are prescribed a gluten-free diet and what consequences this has on the everyday lives of young women and young men dealing with this disease.

Methods: A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to study nutrient intake and how food choices were affected after a change to a gluten-free diet. The FFQ was sent to 12-13 years-old adolescents who took part in a large Swedish celiac screening study. The following three groups were studied: previously diagnosed with celiac disease, screening-diagnosed and non-celiac controls. The first FFQ was sent out before the screening-diagnosed adolescents had been told they had celiac disease, and the second was sent 12-18 months after they had been prescribed the gluten-free treatment. Semi-structured interviews were performed five years later in order to study how everyday life was affected by celiac disease in seven young women and seven young men. The interviews were analyzed by content analysis.

Results: The previously diagnosed celiac disease group reported a nutrient intake in line with the non-celiac control group. Most of the participants reported nutrient intakes above the estimated average requirements. A diagnosis of celiac disease altered the intake of some foods, and this was shown by comparing the results from the baseline FFQ before the diagnosis and the follow-up FFQ after. The young women and young men reported similar experiences of the gluten-free food, but the perceived consequences of living with celiac disease differed between genders.

Conclusion: This thesis shows that after a diagnosis of celiac disease food changes are necessary in order to be compliant with the gluten-free diet. One common effect is that food options will be reduced. However, as long the food intake is gluten-free, varied, and in sufficient quantity there is no reason to worry more about the nutritional intake of adolescents diagnosed with celiac disease than there is for their non-celiac peers. The findings in this thesis also show that society’s gender order has a great impact on how young women and young men experience their everyday lives, with celiac disease, and with the gluten-free diet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2014. 76 p.
celiac disease, gluten-free diet, gender, dietary assessment, adolescents, qualitative interviews
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Food and Nutrition
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85866 (URN)978-91-7601-014-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-21, Hörsal D, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-12 Last updated: 2015-11-04Bibliographically approved

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Kautto, EthelIvarsson, AnneliNorström, FredrikHörnell, Agneta
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