Small pH and Salt Variations Radically Alter the Thermal Stability of Metal-Binding Domains in the Copper Transporter, Wilson Disease Protein
2013 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 42, 13038-13050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Although strictly regulated, pH and solute concentrations in cells may exhibit temporal and spatial fluctuations. Here we study the effect of such changes on the stability, structure, and dynamics in vitro and in silico of a two-domain construct (WD56) of the fifth and sixth metal-binding domains of the copper transport protein, ATP7B (Wilson disease protein). We find that the thermal stability of WD56 is increased by 40 °C when increasing the pH from 5.0 to 7.5. In contrast, addition of salt at pH 7.2 decreases WD56 stability by up to 30 °C. In agreement with domain-domain coupling, fractional copper loading increases the stability of both domains. HSQC chemical shift changes demonstrate that, upon lowering the pH from 7.2 to 6, both His in WD6 as well as the second Cys of the copper site in each domain become protonated. MD simulations reveal increased domain-domain fluctuations at pH 6 and in the presence of high salt concentration, as compared to at pH 7 and low salt concentration. Thus, the surface charge distribution at high pH contributes favorably to overall WD56 stability. By introducing more positive charges by lowering the pH, or by diminishing charge-charge interactions by salt, fluctuations among the domains are increased and thereby overall stability is reduced. Copper transfer activity also depends on pH: delivery of copper from chaperone Atox1 to WD56 is more efficient at pH 7.2 than at pH 6 by a factor of 30. It appears that WD56 is an example where the free energy landscapes for folding and function are linked via structural stability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013. Vol. 117, no 42, 13038-13050 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71579DOI: 10.1021/jp402415yPubMedID: 23675861OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-71579DiVA: diva2:625128