Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Preschool-Age Children in Northern Sweden Are Inadequate After Summer and Diminish Further During Winter
2013 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 56, no 5, 551-555 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background and Objective: Despite studies indicating that vitamin D intake among Swedish children does not meet the recommendation, little is known of their vitamin D status. The aim of the present study was to examine vitamin D status in preschool-age children in relation to vitamin D intake, season, body mass index, and skin color. Methods: Preschool-age children (n = 90; mean age 54 +/- 7.1 months), all living in northern Sweden (latitude 63 degrees north), half of them with fair skin, half with darker complexion, were recruited from well-baby clinics. The study group was examined first in August-September (late summer) and then the following January-February (winter). Skin type, vitamin D intake, anthropometrics, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH] D), and serum parathyroid hormone were assessed. Results: Mean +/- SD S-25(OH) Din summer and winter were 60 +/- 15 nmol/L and 55 +/- 16 nmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001). Fifteen percent and 10% had S-25(OH) D >= 75 nmol/L, and 25% and 40% had S-25(OH) D < 50 nmol/L, respectively. The mean vitamin D intake was higher in dark-skinned compared with fair-skinned children. In spite of this, S-25(OH) D in dark-skinned children was lower compared with fair-skinned children during both seasons. The dietary intake of vitamin D was positively associated with S-25(OH) D levels. Conclusions: Vitamin D status is inadequate in preschool-age children living in northern Sweden, especially in dark-skinned children and during the winter despite vitamin D intakes meeting the recommendations, prompting strategies to improve intake of vitamin D in this population.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 56, no 5, 551-555 p.
child, latitude, season, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-72701DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182838e5bISI: 000318021900024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-72701DiVA: diva2:627197