Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5464-5686
2013 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 57Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short-and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be enhanced, and should also recognize the benefits for long-term health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 57
Keyword [en]
overweight, infectious disease, atopic disease, celiac disease, diabetes, blood pressure
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71113DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20823ISI: 000317581400001OAI: diva2:627373
Available from: 2013-06-11 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hörnell, Agneta
By organisation
Department of Food and Nutrition
In the same journal
Food & Nutrition Research
Nutrition and Dietetics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 82 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link