umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Psychotherapeutic drugs in lake sediment: Accumulation and persistence of benzodiazepines in the sediment of Lake Ekoln
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed group of psychotherapeutic pharmaceuticals on a global scale and have been on the market since the 1960s. Benzodiazepines remain in the aqueous effluent from sewage treatment plants and have been found in natural aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is benzodiazepines in natural sediment from Lake Ekoln situated downstream River Fyris in Uppsala, where previous studies have detected high concentrations in the water. The study tested following hypotheses: (1) benzodiazepines are accumulating in sediments; and (2) breakdown of benzodiazepines is slow in sediment resulting in them being preserved in sediments that are several years/decades old. An extraction method for sediment was developed followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of oxazepam, alprazolam, clonazepam, flunitrazepam, diazepam and prazepam. All investigated benzodiazepines occurred in the sediment of Lake Ekoln; hence, in line with hypothesis 1, benzodiazepines are accumulating in natural sediments. Further, all benzodiazepines were found in the upper 10 cm of the sediment and oxazepam, clonazepam and diazepam was found at depth below 20 cm, corresponding to an age of more than 20 years indicating that benzodiazepines resists degradation processes in sediment and are persistent for decades as predicted by hypothesis 2. To my knowledge this is the first study demonstrating that benzodiazepines are accumulated and preserved in natural sediments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 14 p.
Keyword [en]
Pharmaceuticals, Benzodiazepines, Sediment, Accumulation, Persistence
National Category
Natural Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-73276OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-73276DiVA: diva2:630722
Subject / course
Examensarbete i Naturgeografi för kandidatexamen
Educational program
Bachelor of Science in Biology and Earthscience
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2013-06-24 Created: 2013-06-19 Last updated: 2016-10-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(789 kB)508 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 789 kBChecksum SHA-512
fb0a8114f6a41e5ba20858df439cfcba6a4241f4802762ea26370ca7fa2e45eb9baf4c57e309254d82da534d4cb1681267d0dfadb5df5774c8a93bbdd4da058a
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sundelin, Anna
By organisation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
Natural SciencesEarth and Related Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 508 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 278 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf