Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?
2009 (English)In: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, 147-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009. 147-178 p.
Environmental Sciences Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-76153DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-89366-2_7ISI: 000268354200008ISBN: 978-0-387-88607-7 (Print)ISBN: 978-0-387-89366-2 (Online)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-76153DiVA: diva2:635763