Essential Metals: Assessing Risks from Deficiency and Toxicity
2007 (English)In: Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 3rd Edition / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg and Lars T. Friberg, San Diego: Elsevier, 2007, 3, 163-176 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intakes (AROI) in which no adverse effects occur. It must be noted, however, that such a range cannot be found that protects all persons from adverse effects. Those persons with genetically determined sensitivity may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. AROI is defined as protecting 95% of an unselected human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego: Elsevier, 2007, 3. 163-176 p.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-76459DOI: 10.1016/B978-012369413-3/50064-1ISI: 000311285300011ISBN: 978-0-12-369413-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-76459DiVA: diva2:636769