Biological Monitoring and Biomarkers
2007 (English)In: Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 3rd Edition / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg and Lars T. Friberg, San Diego: Elsevier, 2007, 3, 65-78 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Biomonitoring was developed for the assessment of the health risks from exposure to metals at work, and the approaches and concepts of biomonitoring are derived from such exposures. At present, biomonitoring is increasingly used to assess exposure from the environment. Biomonitoring and assessment of external exposure are complementing activities, where the exposure assessments are much more widely applied, especially when the number of chemicals concerned is considered; environmental analysis also offers the distinct advantage of speciation analysis, which is very poorly developed for biomonitoring. Biomonitoring, on the other hand, provides information on exposure from all sources, and via all absorption routes, and also considers accumulation of the chemical in the body. Biomonitoring using exposure biomarkers thus considers interindividual differences in the absorption, whereas use of effect biomarkers also considers interindividual differences in sensitivity. Few effect biomarkers, however, have been validated. Biomarkers of susceptibility have so far not been adapted for use in metal toxicology. The major challenges of biomonitoring are the development of monitoring methods, which are inexpensive enough to be applied at a frequency that makes possible meaningful biomonitoring of metals with a short half-time; development of exposure biomarker guidance values specific to individual species of different metals; expansion of the repertoire of validated effect biomarkers; and validation and application to effect monitoring of the "omic" technologies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego: Elsevier, 2007, 3. 65-78 p.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-76457DOI: 10.1016/B978-012369413-3/50059-8ISI: 000311285300006ISBN: 978-0-12-369413-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-76457DiVA: diva2:636773