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Person-centredness and its association with resident well-being in dementia care units
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutetet.
Research Department, County Council of Norrbotten.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 10, 2196-2205 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim To report a study of the relationship between person-centred care and ability to perform activities of daily living, quality of life, levels of pain, depressive symptoms, and agitated behaviours among residents with dementia in residential care facilities.

Background Standardized measurements of person-centred care have not previously been used to investigate the relationship between person-centred care and well-being for residents with dementia in residential aged care units.

Design This study had a cross-sectional design.

Method Staff and resident surveys were used in a sample of 1261 residents with dementia and 1169 staff from 151 residential care units throughout Sweden. Valid and reliable scales were used to measure person-centredness and ability to perform activities of daily living, quality of life, levels of pain, depressive symptoms, and agitated behaviours in residents. All data were collected in May 2010.

Findings Person-centred care was correlated with residents' ability to perform activities of daily living. Furthermore, residents in units with higher levels of person-centred care were rated as having higher quality of life and better ability to perform activities of daily living compared with residents in units with lower levels of person-centred care.

Conclusions There seems to be a relationship between person-centredness, residents' ability to perform activities of daily living, and residents' quality of life. Further studies are needed to explain the variation of person-centredness between units and the extent and ways this might impact on the quality of life and well-being of frail older residents with cognitive impairments in clinical practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Vol. 69, no 10, 2196-2205 p.
Keyword [en]
activities of daily living, agitated behaviours, dementia care, depressive symptoms, nursing, pain, person-centred care, quality of life
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-79691DOI: 10.1111/jan.12085PubMedID: 23331281OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-79691DiVA: diva2:643961
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Personcentrerad vård i särskilda boenden för äldre
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personcentrerad vård i särskilda boenden för äldre
2013 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Person-centred care in residential aged care units
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Andelen äldre i befolkningen ökar nationellt och internationellt, och med ökande ålder ökar både fysisk och psykisk ohälsa. Äldre personer med ohälsa i form av kognitiv svikt (oftast demenssjukdom) kan bli beroende av vård och omsorg i särskilda boenden för äldre för att kunna känna trygghet och välbefinnande samt ha ett gott liv, i gemenskap med andra. Dock visar utvärderingar av särskilda boenden för äldre att vården ofta kan vara uppgiftscentrerad och inte motsvara de äldres individuella behov och önskemål. Personcentrerad vård är en vårdmodell som beskrivs kunna tillgodose äldre personers multidimensionella behov och önskemål, genom att personens livshistoria, personlighet, kapacitet och perspektiv uppmärksammas, respekteras och inkluderas i vården. Den vetenskapliga litteraturen inom området visar dock att det finns begränsad kunskap om förekomsten av personcentrerad vård i särskilda boenden för äldre i Sverige och internationellt, liksom om vilka faktorer som är mest betydelsefulla för att särskilda boenden för äldre ska bedriva en personcentrerad vård.

Syfte: Syftet med denna avhandling var att beskriva faktorer som samvarierar med förekomst av personcentrerad vård i särskilda boenden för äldre i Sverige.

Metod: Samtliga delstudier var tvärsnittstudier och data samlades in genom enkäter till äldre med kognitiv svikt och personal i särskilda boenden för äldre i Sverige. I studie I bestod insamlad data av skattningar av personcentrerad vård från vårdpersonal (n=1465) i 182 särskilda boendeenheter. I studie II insamlades data i form av vårdpersonalens (n=1169) skattningar av personcentrerad vård och proxyskattningar av de äldres (n=1261) livskvalitet, ADL-förmågor, smärta, depressiva symtom och agitation i 151 särskilda boendeenheter. Delstudie III baserades på data i form av personalskattningar (n=1169) av personcentrerad vård, tillfredställelse med arbete och vård, samvetsstress, arbetsbelastning och psykosocialt klimat i samma 151 särskilda boendeenheter. Även delstudie IV baserades på data från de 151 särskilda boendeenheterna och inkluderade skattningar av de äldre och vårdpersonal, men också skattningar av organisation och miljö vid dessa enheter (n=151). Samtliga studiernas data analyserades med hjälp av statistiska analyser, beskrivande, bivariata och multivariata analysmetoder.

Resultat: Studie I visade att enkätinstrumentet The Person-Centred Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT) har tillfredställande psykometriska egenskaper för intern konsistens och test-retest-reliabilitet. Instrumentet består av två subskalor: Individualisering av vården och Stöd från organisation och miljö. Delstudie II visade att de boendes ADL-förmågor och livskvalitet skattades bättre vid enheter som kan beskrivas som mer personcentrerade. Delstudie III visade att en mer personcentrerad vård har samband med att personalen upplever ett positivt psykosocialt klimat, mindre samvetsstress, lägre arbetsbelastning samt högre tillfredställelse med vård och arbete. Studien visade också att personcentrerad vård var positivt relaterat till i vilken omfattning vårdarna hade vidareutbildning i demensvård. Delstudie IV visade att vårdmiljön var mest betydelsefull för förekomsten av personcentrerad vård vid boendeenheterna och att en gynnsam vårdmiljö innebar att personal upplevde att det var ett positivt psykosocialt klimat på enheten, att de hade tid att prata med eller bara vara med de boende samt att de upplevde sig ha en gemensam värdegrund, låg arbetsbelastning och en fysisk miljö som var anpassad till de boendes behov.

Slutsatser: Resultaten i avhandlingen visar att den svenska versionen av P-CAT kan användas för valida och reliabla utvärderingar av personcentrerad vård samt att den kan rekommenderas för fortsatt forskning och vårdutveckling inom särskilda boenden för äldre. Resultatet visar också att den vård- och arbetsmiljö som omger de äldre och vårdpersonal i särskilda boenden för äldre är betydelsefull för förekomsten av personcentrerad vård. Dessa aspekter behöver fokuseras ytterligare för att kunna erbjuda en personcentrerad vård. Vidare är det psykosociala klimatet och förekomsten av en upplevd gemensam värdegrund viktig att förstå och prioritera om vården ska utvecklas mot en ökad personcentrering. Fortsatt forskning och kliniskt utvecklingsarbete behövs för att operationalisera och implementera de komponenter som bidrar till ett positivt psykosocialt klimat och en personcentrerad värdegrund på särskilda boenden för äldre. Dessutom behövs en ökad förståelse för hur en sådan värdegrund kan omsättas i personcentrerade interaktioner, handlingar, aktiviteter och prioriteringar. Det vore alltså önskvärt att äldrevården utvecklades mot ett mer personcentrat förhållningssätt, eftersom avhandlingens resultat visar att högre grad av personcentrerad vård i särskilda boenden för äldre var positivt relaterat till välbefinnande och tillfredställelse för såväl de äldre som för vårdpersonal.

Abstract [en]

Introduction: The proportion of older people in the population increases nationally and internationally, with a declining physical and mental health often accompanying older age. Older people with health issues such as cognitive impairment or dementia often become dependent upon residential aged care to feel safe, experience well being and a good life with others. However, it has been shown that residential aged care can largely be taskoriented and not tailored to residents' needs and wishes. Person-centred care is a contemporary best practice model of care that can meet the multidimensional needs and preferences of older people dependent on care, by acknowledging, respecting and including each person’s life story, personality, capacities, and perspective in care. Nevertheless, the research literature indicates a limited knowledge on the extent to which residential aged care units are person-centred in Sweden and internationally, as well as a limited knowledge into factors of importance for person-centred care in residential aged care units.

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to describe factors that associate with person-centred care in Swedish residential aged care units.

Methods: The thesis consists of four studies with cross-sectional designs, and data was collected through resident and staff surveys in Swedish residential aged care units. Study I collected data consisting of ratings of person-centred care from staff (n=1465) in 182 residential aged care units. Study II collected data consisting of staff (n=1169) ratings of person-centred care and proxy ratings of resident (n=1261) quality of life, ADL-capacity, pain, depressive symptoms and agitated behaviours, in 151 residential aged care units. Study III was based on staff (n=1169) ratings of person-centred care, satisfaction with care and work, job strain, stress of conscience, and perceived psychosocial climate in the same 151 residential aged care units as in study II. Study IV was also based on data from the 151 residential aged care units as described in study II and III, and included ratings of resident and staff variables, as well as variables related to the organization and environment at the units. Data was analyzed using statistical analyses such as descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods.

Results: Study I showed that the Person-Centred Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) has satisfactory psychometric properties relating to internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The tool consists of two subscales: Extent of personalizing care and Amount of organizational and environmental support. Study II showed that residents were rated as having higher quality of life and better ability to perform activities of daily living in units described as being more person-centred. Study III highlighted that person-centred care was associated with higher staff satisfaction, less job strain, less stress of conscience, and a positive psychosocial unit climate. Person-centredness of care was also positively associated with the extent to which staff had continuing education in dementia care. Study IV showed that the environment is the most influential factor for person-centred care, and that an environment facilitating person-centred care consists of a positive psychosocial unit climate, where staff perceives having time to spend being with residents, where staff perceives a shared philosophy of care, a low job strain, and a physical environment adapted to residents’ needs.

Conclusions: The results of the thesis show that the Swedish version of the P-CAT can be used for valid and reliable assessment of unit personcentredness, and that it can be recommended for further research and practice development in residential aged care. The results of the thesis also show that the environment of care and work that encapsulates residents and staff in residential care units is important for person-centred care. These aspects need further focus to enable person-centred care in residential aged care units. Furthermore, the psychosocial climate and the presence and content of a shared philosophy of care are important to understand and prioritize if care is to move towards increased person-centredness. Further research and practice development work is needed to operationalize and implement the components that contribute to a positive psychosocial climate and a person-centred philosophy in residential aged care units, as well as to increase the knowledge of how such a philosophy of care can be translated into person-centred actions, interactions, activities and priorities.

strive towards developing person-centredness further within aged care is desirable, as the results in this thesis indicate that residential aged care units

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2013. 85 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1590
Keyword
care environment, cross sectional study, dementia, nursing staff, organization, person-centred care, residential facilities, well-being, demens, organisation, personcentrerad vård, särskilda boenden, tvärsnittsstudie, vårdpersonal, vårdmiljö, välbefinnande
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-79705 (URN)978-91-7459-711-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-27, Aulan Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved

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